عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism is one of the main levers of foreign exchange earnings by developed countries and many developed countries have accelerated their economic growth by facilitating the growth of this industry.
The tourism industry has become so important in the economic and social development of countries that economists have called it invisible exports and refer to it as a key pillar of sustainable development.
In recent years, the determination of macroeconomic authorities and decision-makers to develop an oil-free economy and the high potential of nature and climate in Iran has increased the importance of addressing tourism related issues in the country and The task of researchers in this regard is increasingly important.
Iran is one of the top ten countries in terms of tourist attractions and is among the top five countries in terms of diversity but according to World Tourism Organization statistics in 2015, Iran ranks 97th out of 147 countries in the world and in the Middle East formations, it has dedicated rank 12, which is very low position with abilities of the country.
Tourist and how to decide where to target him are the most important elements in tourism, given the high importance of influencing factors in target location selection, this study seeks to provide a practical and scientific analysis based on the "DEMATEL" method on the most influential factors among the numerous factors in the tourism industry to help macroeconomic policy makers optimize investment in the tourism industry. The main purpose of the present study is to identify the most effective and influential factors on choosing a place for tourism and their ranking by using "DEMATEL" method in Iran. One of the important points in tourism is the choice of destination for travel by the tourist. Everyone for choosing the destination for tourism considers some factors that In this study, we investigated these factors. Then the influence of these factors on each other is investigated and finally we determine the most effective and most influential factor. Therefore, targeted investment in the factors that have the greatest impact on the choice of destination by tourists that helping to increase the likelihood of tourists choosing the place and continue to grow the tourism industry.
The World Tourism and Travel Council (2001-2004) identifies four main elements which are environmental capability, policy and tourism positioning capability, the natural and cultural infrastructures and resources that make up a destination for tourism. Several studies have been conducted in this field. For example, research was done in East Asian countries led to the conclusion that the six factors of attraction, transportation, costs, security, proper market and natural factors are the most important factors in the field of tourism.
Studies of the tourism industry in Iran have also been conducted in the past. For example, in a study, effective factors on tourist satisfaction using DEMATEL model has been investigated that human factors are the most important indicators, the most effective facilities and the most influential security factor. In another study examined the satisfaction rate of tourists in Gorgan. From the results of this study, four factors of service quality, environmental quality, quality of host society behavior and cost of service are identified as the main criteria, the first two factors having the most role and the second two factors having the most role.
The present study is a descriptive and applied analytic one and has been accomplished through library studies, brainstorming, field research, and expert interviews.
"DEMATEL" is one of a variety of multi-criteria decision-making methods based on pairwise comparisons. This technique utilizes the judgment of the experts in extracting the elements of a system and structuring them.
DEMTEL's method helps in ranking the factors by identifying the most effective and influential factors as well as the factors that interact most with the other factors.
The steps of the DEMATEL technique are as follows:
1-Library study and resource extraction
2- Filtering agents and finalizing agents with the help of industry and university experts
3- Factor weighting by industry and university experts
4- Direct Relationship Matrix Formation
5- Normalize the direct relation matrix
6- Computation of full correlation matrix
7- Creating causal graphs
8- Analysis of findings
At first the factors were found through library studies, brainstorming, field research, and expert interviews. Next, these factors were prioritized and ranked using the DEMATEL method to obtain the most effective and influential factors.
Results and discussion
The factors that were initially found and investigated are as follows:
Places, recreational places, security, cost levels, geographic location, variety of attractions, uniqueness of attraction, area culture and customs, area people's lifestyle, hospitality culture, products and souvenirs, residential & commercial places, business centers, health status of the area, service centers, transportation performance, beauty and quality of urban architecture, political-religious status of the city of destination, language and dialect of the people of the area, city's popularity, destination and distance to destination
This method prioritized and ranked the factors that have the most impact on transportation performance factors, natural attractions and historical sites, distance, geographic location, and dialect respectively had the most impact on people's choice of a place for tourism and according to other data, it can be said that geographical location, distance, and natural attractions have the most interaction with other factors, respectively, which means they have a lot of influence (influencer and influential) on other factors.
Looking at the research, it can be deduced that influential factors are somehow derived from affective factors, so influencers are more important to people in choosing a place for tourism, so planning and managing these factors is a priority because managing effective factors can also manage and enhance their effectiveness.
Given the importance of the topic, it is recommended that future research use other decision-making methods and compare the results with each other.