عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, most theorists on the development and reduction of deprivation, especially rural development, believe that sustainable development cannot be achieved without people's participation, and that the transition period has been made easier, faster and less costly with people's participation. Rural civil society with a participatory approach has played a fundamental and fundamental role in the comprehensive development of rural communities. This role will be fulfilled by providing public facilities such as drinking water, baths and schools to improve the living conditions of the villagers and their participation (Roumani et al., 1977: 64).
There has been much debate about the word participation and its literal meaning, but overall its meaning can be described as involvement, activity, and effectiveness (Alavi Tabar, 2000: 15). People's participation means voluntary cooperation and their freedom in the development process (Ibrahimzadeh, 1998: 2). Social participation is in particular the concept of conscious, spontaneous, voluntary and purposeful participation of individuals and groups in social affairs of the community and to facilitate work, expedite and facilitate the conduct of community affairs and contribute to social development goals (Ennorouzi et al., 1386: 95). People's participation in the development process is so credible that they see development as equal to participation. Participation is a process of decision-making and problem-solving, and is applied to individuals and groups who have different interests, interests, expertise, and perspectives and work to benefit those whose decisions and actions will affect them (Tiamsoon). Sirisirisak, 2009: 406).
In order to achieve the goals of the research, careful selection of appropriate research methods and tools is essential. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and its data are obtained by library method (for formulating theoretical principles of the subject) and field method (questionnaire). In order to collect field data, after trying to identify the research variables, a questionnaire was used to collect the required data in the study area. For data collection, the sample was distributed and distributed among the local population. Therefore, the statistical population of this study consisted of 8 villages in Bisheh suburb in the central part of Ghaemshahr city. 188 specimens were identified based on Cochran soft formula and Census formula of 1395 and error of 0.07%. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by the faculty of geography at Sari Branch of Azad University. Reliability of the research instrument was calculated by Cronbach's alpha at acceptable level (0.756%) indicating that the research instrument was appropriate. The collected data were analyzed according to the type of research question by appropriate statistical methods such as (one-sample t-test, cluster analysis, independent sample t-test and by-pass model).
The results of the one-sample t-test of the average calculated barriers of local people's participation in rural development were compared with the hypothetical average (3) and showed that the true mean of total respondents' perceptions of economic-financial, personal and personality barriers, institutional and information, and The correlation is larger than 3 and is moderately high, and is significant and generalizable to the whole population, given the significance of these barriers, which is less than 0.05. According to the final centers of the clusters, the mean values of the variables in the second cluster are relatively higher than the other clusters. This indicates that in the second cluster, given the sample size, the barriers to local people's participation in rural development are greater than in the first cluster. The results of ANOVA table show which variables have the most role in clustering. Therefore, the significance of social, cultural, economic, financial, individual and personality, institutional and organizational barriers and information and communication barriers of error smaller than 0.01 have the greatest role in separating clusters. Therefore, respondents' opinion was divided into two groups. The results of WASPAS model showed that the highest Qi was observed in the village of Pashaklafrakti and the lowest Qi was observed in Pashaklafaraki village. This means that the villages with higher Qi have more severe barriers to local people's participation in rural development. And less Qi villages have less barriers to local people's participation in rural development.
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