سنجش تطبیقی معیارهای رشد هوشمند شهری در نواحی شش‏گانۀ منطقۀ 6 تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 کارشناس ‏ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‏ ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مفهوم رشد هوشمند شهری راهکاری است در برابر گسترش افقی یا رشد اسپرال‏گونة شهر که در نیم قرن اخیر الگوی رشد جهانی شهرها بوده است. رشد هوشمند در مخالفت با گسترش افقی در بخش مرکزی شهر بر عواملی مانند باززنده‏سازی محلات، توسعة درونی، کاهش فواصل بین محل کار و زندگی، کاهش آلودگی‏های زیست‏محیطی، افزایش کاربرد حمل و نقل عمومی، و حداکثر دسترسی به خدمات شهری و ... تأکید می‏کند. در حال حاضر، منطقة 6 تهران، به‏عنوان بخش مرکزی شهر، با چالش‏های آلودگی زیست‏محیطی، کم‏رنگ‏شدن هویت محله‏ای، افت جمعیت ساکن، و... روبه‏روست. بنابراین، در این تحقیق اصول رشد هوشمند برای کاهش مشکلات موجود و افزایش کارایی منطقه مناسب دیده شد. هدف از این تحقیق نخست سنجش درجة فشردگی/پراکنش منطقة 6 تهران و سپس تحلیل و تطبیق 6 شاخص رویکرد رشد هوشمند شهری (تراکم، کاربری ترکیبی، حمل و نقل عمومی، فضاهای سبز و باز، بازسازی بافت قدیمی، و حس تعلق مکان) با استفاده از روش سلسله‏مراتبی (AHP) بوده است. ماهیت این تحقیق کاربردی و روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است و برای گردآوری اطلاعات از محاسبات کمّی و روش میدانی و اسنادی استفاده شده است. جامعة آماری ساکنان منطقة 6 است. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، 160پرسش‏نامه برای ساکنان و 30 پرسش‏نامه برای کارشناسان تهیه و گردآوری شد. یافته‏های این پژوهش نشان می‏دهد فرم کالبدی منطقة 6 تهران فشرده است و در سنجش تطبیقی 6 شاخص انتخاب‏شدهناحیة 3 منطقه با فاصلة نسبتاً زیاد ناحیة سازگارتر با شاخص‏های رشد هوشمند شهری شناخته شد. سرانجام، راهکارهایی برای سازگاری بیشتر سایر نواحی منطقه پیشنهاد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative assessment of urban smart growth indicators in 6 areas of 6th region, Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Keramatollah zyari 1
  • Hossein Hataminejad 2
  • Naiemeh Torkamannia 3
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction

The pattern of urban growth in the years after World War II has been sprawl that caused horizontal expansion and negative consequences for cities. For example loss of agricultural land and orchards, drain the old tissues from the crowd, problems of service to citizens, environmental problems and pollution and etc.
Now the 6th district of Tehran as a central part of the city faced with challenges like environmental problems, reduce neighborhood identity, population decline and etc. Therefore, in this study Was selected principles of urban smart growth for reducing problems and increase the efficiency of this region. The aim of this study was initially measure density / distribution degree in the region 6 of Tehran and then analyzed and adjusted 6 indicators urban smart growth theory (density, mixed use, public transportation, open and green spaces, reconstruction of old part of cities and sense of place) by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
Methodology

This research is applied and the research methodology is descriptive- analytical. The data collection tool is library documents and survey. The statistical population was residents of district 6 that by using Cochran formula was calculated total 160 questionnaires for residents and 30 questionnaires for experts.

Results and discussion
Environmental damage, pollution, swallowed agricultural land around cities, increasing immigration, the separation of work place from residence, increased urban travels, increased use of private cars on day trips, increased fuel consumption, low density urban texture, increased costs for municipal services to marginalized regions, being inconsistent and unbalanced access to utilities in the city and consequently, social and cultural problems is the problem of urban sprawl. As noted above, in response to issues and crises of cities in the 1970s and 1980s, several theories have been proposed Such as sustainable development, environmental justice, new urbanism, Green Urbanization in the 1990s and more recently smart growth theory in planning system in 1990s. Smart growth arose as a response to the urban sprawl problems and the negative consequences in U.S and it defines the principles for dense development and redevelopment within urban areas and reduce the uncontrolled and urban sprawl. Smart growth Principles and implementation of operational strategies this approach, seeking to take advantage of social, economic, environmental, and physical and they attempt for making balance between these dimensions in cities. According to Walmesley, Smart Growth is kind of planning that with use of social, economic and environmental factors led to development to established areas and equipped with the necessary infrastructure and areas that could be equipped with the required facilities. According to the 6th district of Tehran, considered as central, old part and the heart of Tehran metropolis we can use this theory to reduce problems of region. After Studies on the theory and principles of urban smart growth, in this study, we used the six principles that were common to most definitions and perspectives and fits well with the characteristics and problems in the study area
The pattern of urban growth in the years after World War II has been sprawl that caused horizontal expansion and negative consequences for cities. Urban Smart Growth includes six common characteristics: 1 – it limits the peripheral development. 2 – encourages land use with high-density. 3 - focuses on mixed zoning. 4 –reduces trips that are personal transportation.
5 – Emphasizes on the reconstruction and revitalization of older areas. 6 -to protecting open spaces (Down, 2005,368).
In this study, first of all, the physical form of the 6th district of Tehran was measured by calculating the Shannon entropy formula and 0.862 obtained and Ln (6) is equal to 1.79. So the physical development is considered as a dense region because the obtained value tends towards compactness. Next, we used urban smart growth indicators (density, mixed use, public transport, conservating green spaces, development towards existing communities and rebuild old parts (old texture) and a sense of place) to assess the 6 areas of 6th district of Tehran and with using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), all areas were assessed. We were assigned the same weight for six indicators because of survey of experts. Finally, in comparative assessment was found that 3th area of 6th region was known as compatible area with urban smart growth indicators.

Conclusion
In the present study, we tried to evaluate physical and social parameters of the key principles of smart growth with equal weight zones and integrated for selected case studies. This evaluation makes be identified weaker areas of a region and the end of study we suggest the appropriate enforcement mechanisms for weakness of them.
The findings show that physical form of 6th district is compact and in comparative assessment was found that 3th area of 6th region was known as compatible area with urban smart growth indicators. Rating areas are as follows: 5th area, 6th area, 1th area, 2th area, 4th area. Our results show that smart growth principles aren’t in urban plans, existing condition of neighborhoods and urban regions, normally continuously. In most areas, the density has led to greater access to public transport but these areas act poorly in terms of preserving green spaces, mixed used in neighborhoods and sense of place because of excessive density and transportation cause congestion and disruption in neighborhood life and they reduce sense of place.
So defining the appropriate level of assessment criteria and coordination with each other in the urban hierarchy In particular, the localization the size of these criterias, will yield better results.

Finally, proposed strategies to fit most other areas in the region:
Allow access to all kinds of public transport,
Accommodation young people to balance the relatively older population,
Create a variety of options for affordable housing,
Create the required services on a neighborhood scale,
Improved pedestrian activity in neighborhoods,
Renovation of old buildings,
Create legal and administrative barriers to not turn residential land use to office land use in this region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Smart Growth
  • indicator
  • urban sprawl
  • AHP model
  • 6th Region of Tehran
  1. حکمت‌نیا، حسن و موسوی، میرنجف، 1385، کاربرد مدل در جغرافیا (با تأکید بر برنامه‌ریزی شهری و منطقه‌ای)، یزد: علم نوین.
  2. رهنما، محمدرحیم و عباس‌زاده، غلام‌رضا، 1387، اصول، مبانی و مدل‌های سنجش فرم کالبدی شهر، مشهد: انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد.
  3. زبردست، اسفندیار، 1380، کاربرد فرایند سلسله‌مراتبی در برنامه‌ریزی شهری و منطقه‌ای، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، ش 10، تهران: دانشگاه تهران.
  4. زنگنه شهرکی، سعید، 1390، تحلیل اثراث اجتماعی‌- اقتصادی و زیست‌محیطی گسترش افقی شهر و چگونگی به‌کارگیری سیاست‌های رشد هوشمند شهری (مطالعة موردی: شهر یزد)، پایان‌نامة دکتری، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران.
  5. شهرداری منطقة 6 تهران، 1383، معرفی و شناخت نواحی شش‌گانة منطقة 6 تهران، واحد مطالعات و برنامه‌ریزی.
  6. ضرابی، اصغر؛ صابری، حمید؛ محمدی، جمال و وارثی، حمیدرضا، 1390، تحلیل فضایی شاخص‌های رشد هوشمند شهری (مطالعة موردی: مناطق شهر اصفهان)، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، ش 77، صص ۱-۱۷.
  7. قدسی‌پور، سیدحسن، 1379، مباحثی در تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره؛ فرایند تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر.
  8. مرکز آمار ایران، سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن، 1385.
  9. مهندسین مشاور نقش جهان پارس، 1386، طرح الگوی توسعه و طرح تفصیلی منطقة 6، تهران: وزارت مسکن و شهرسازی، شهرداری تهران و مرکز مطالعات و برنامه‌ریزی شهر تهران.
  10. نوریان، فرشاد و شایسته‌پایدار، علی‌رضا، 1386، ارزیابی عملکرد شهر جدید گل‌بهار با استفاده از روش ارزیابی فرایند تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی، شهرنگار، ش 44، صص ۲۵-۳۳.
  11. نوشاد، سمیه و قربانی، رسول، 1387، راهبرد رشد هوشمند در توسعة شهری اصول و راهکارها، فصل‌نامة جغرافیا و توسعه، ش 12، صص ۱-18.

12. Anderson, Geof F., 2006, Why Smart Growth: A Primer, International City/County Management Association, America. PDF: http://www.smart growth online.org/resources.

13. Batisani , N. and Yarnal, B., 2011, Elasticity of capital-land substitution in housing conservation and recreational wildlife values into smart growth land use planning, construction, Gaborone, Botswana: Implications for smart growth policy and affordable housing, Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume Vol. 99, No. 2, PP. 77-82.

14. Brown, M. and Southworth, F., 2008, Mitigating climate change through green buildings and smart growth, Environment and Planning A, Vol. 40, PP. 653-675.

15. Cultural Affairs and Planning 6th region of Tehran, 2009, Two-year program areas and neighborhoods, Tehran.

16. Down, A., 2005, Smart Growth: Why We Discuss It More Than We Do It. JournalOf The American Planning Association, Vol. 71, No. 4, PP. 367-380.

17. Edwards, M. and Haines, A., 2007, Evaluating Smart Growth: Implications For Small Communities, Journal Of Planning Education And Research, PP. 49-64.

18. Gillham, O., 2002, The Limitless City: A Primer on the Urban Sprawl.

19. Hekmat nia, H. and Moosavi, M., 2005, Application Model in Geography, Elm and Novin publications, Yazd (in Persian).

20. Jun, J. Myung, 2008, Are Portland s Smart Growth Policies Related to Reduced Automobile Dependence? Journal of Planning Education and Research, originally published online, http://jpe.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/1/100.

21. Municipality of 6th region website (www.rgion6.tehran.ir) (in Persian).

22. Naghsh e Jahan Pars consulting engineers, 2007, Development Pattern Plan and detailed Design of 6th region, Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning, Tehran (in Persian).

23. Noorian, F. and, Shayeste, A., 2011, Performance Assessment of Golbahar by using analytic hierarchy process method, Shahr Negar, No. 44, PP. 25-35,(in Persian).

24. Noshad, S. and Ghorbani, R., 2008, Uurban smart growth strategy, Geography and Development Quarterly, Vol. 12, PP. 1-18 (in Persian).

25. Rahnama, M.R. and Abbas zade, G., 2008, Principles, basics and evaluation models of physical form of the city, Jahad Daneshgahi publications, Mashhad, (In Persian).

26. Ramirez de la Cruz, E., 2009, Local Political Institutions and Smart growth, Urban Affairs Review, 45-218. http://uar.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/45/2/218.

27. SGN, 2002, What is Smart Growth, Smart Growth Network, US Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov/smartgrowth.

28. Shen, Q. and Zhang, F., 2007, Land use Changes In a Pro-Smart Growth State: Maryland, USA, Environment and Planning , Vol. A39, No. 6, PP. 145-147.

29. Statistical Center of Iran, Census of Population and Housing, 2006, (in Persian).

30. Susanti, R.; Soetomo, S.; Buchori, I. and Brotosunaryo, P. M., 2016, Smart growth, smart city and density: In search of the appropriate indicator for residential density in Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 227, No. 1, PP. 194-201.

31. Underwood, J. G.; Francis, J. amd  Gerber, L. R., 2011, Incorporating biodiversity conservation and recreational wildlife values into smart growth land use planning, Landscape and urban planning, Vol. 100, No. 1-2,  PP. 136-143.

32. Walmsley, A., 2006, Greenways: multiplying and diversifying in the 21st century, Landscape and Urban Planning, 76.

33. Ye, lin et al., 2005, What Is "Smart Growth?"—Really?, Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 19, P. 301.