عنوان مقاله [English]
Design of mountain eco-park based on landscape services
(Case study: Shadab Mountain, Tarhan)
Mountains are one of the most interesting features of the earth (Prigo, 315,2019; Fugin, 2016) which act as a source and bridge for species. As result, they are crucial for the survival and stability of many human societies (Prigo, 315,2019). Therefore, management of natural and environmental resources of mountains (Bonadona, 2017), should be considered cautious (Nepal et al., 314, 2005) without undermining sustainability (Darabi et al., 597,2019). Therefore, designing mountain eco-parks which all resources are interdependent (Gauss, 2006), and interaction and coordination between all activities can be a response to these challenges. Ecological design is one of the options to respond to these concerns while providing the ecosystem and landscape services.
Landscape services are defined as goods and services provided by landscapes to meet human needs, directly or indirectly (Fabrizio, 368,2014; Galix, 273,2014). It seems that the benefits of landscape services that overlap with the characteristics of the Eco-park can provide a suitable basis for design of the eco-park by linking the design with the pattern and natural process (Galix, 273,2014). Therefore, the purpose of this research is to use landscape services as a basis of designing a mountain Eco-park.
Materials and Method:
The area of study is Grab mountain Eco-park which is located in Grab City. It is a part of Lorestan province in western Iran. This City is the center of Tarhan district of Kuhdasht and part of the Zagros Mountains. The area located 33.4739° N, 47.2374° E in term of geographical location (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Location of the area of study
The research is done on base of following processes (Figure 2). Accordingly, this process consists of 6 steps. At first, landscape service indicators were selected according to the thematic literature and field study. Then, field surveys are done in 30 * 30 m parcels and basic maps were produced for each index in two categories: evaluation of quality of services and the context potential. After preparation of the potential and services maps, the indicators were weighted based on the AHP hierarchical evaluation process and overlaid separately by provision-production, regulation and socio-cultural services on the basis of following equation. They were re-overlayed and the final zoning was obtained.
Then, after analyzing the limitations and facilities of the site in line with the design of the Eco-park, which ultimately leads to the design of the Eco-park in the framework of ecological design.
Based on the first stage, potential and utility maps were produced. The outcomes are presented in the utility and potential maps. In continue, the maps were combined based on the research method, and finally, three zoning maps of provision-production, regulatory and socio-cultural services were obtained. The combination of three groups of landscape services together provides the final status of landscape services in the study area. The overlay is lead to the four main zones: weak zone, zone with the capability of provision-production services, zone with the capability of regulatory services and zone with the capability of socio-cultural services (Fig. 3).
Figure 2. Final zoning of landscape services
The important subject is:1- which sectors of target area is able to provide services and 2- what is the current state of service delivery. Therefore, the difference between the potential and the quality of the services in the area determines the intensity of the intervention.
The result of the analysis identified four zones: 1) Weak zone: This zone is the weakest zone in terms of providing landscape services in all dimensions. Slope above 80% and being rocky are the main reasons for poor service delivery. Due to the high fragility of this area, any intervention in this area should be avoided.
2) Zone with the capability of provision-production services: This zone consists of agricultural and barren lands. The zone for providing provision-production services is of relatively favorable condition and in relative proportion to the potential of the area. Therefore, efforts should be made to prevent the development of existing disturbances as much as possible and reduce them.
3) Zone with the ability of regulatory services: This zone located in the mountain slope that mainly includes a set of regulatory services. Providing appropriate solutions to reduce environmental challenges and disturbances in the area is essential.
4) Zone with the capability of cultural-social services: This zone which facing north, has very poor vegetation. The behavioral pattern of the people indicates a higher probability of the presence of users in this area. This area has the ability to provide good services, but, the poor services are provided. Therefore, intervention in this area seems necessary.
Figure 3. Master plan of designed area
Based on spatial analysis and the principles of ecological design, the strategic plan of Eco-park has been presented. The proposed plan follows the natural structure. Moreover, an effort has been made to be adapted as possible to the spatial conditions. The access structure is a function of the morphology and topography of the site. The design of the spaces is based on the capacity and potential of the zones. Efforts have been made to respect nature, to provide a reasonable and identifying link between the environment and humans within an Eco-park (Fig. 3).
Mountains are extremely vulnerable despite their ability to provide many services. Therefore, sustainability of mountain landscape requires recognizing the context and origin for vulnerability along with benefiting from. Therefore, after the studies carried out in the framework of landscape services, a basis has been provided for intervention in the form of Eco-park design. By zoning the disintegrated areas and focus on landscape integration, an Eco-park designed which will provide landscape services with emphasis on educational, recreational and environmental issues. Obviously, the work done covers only part of the whole, evaluating the feasibility, or evaluating and participatory design of such spaces and examining the limitations of the implementation are among the studies that can be done in the continuation of this work.