ارزیابی فرصت‌های کارآفرینی در نواحی روستایی و نقش دولت در ارتقاء‌ آن مطالعه موردی روستاهای شهرستان بهبهان

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشکده جغرافیا دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

چکیده
نقش دولت در کارآفرینی با خلق فرصت‌های جدید، نوآوری و ایجاد رفاه، نقش مؤثری در بهبود وضع اقتصادی و معیشتی جوامع روستایی ایفا می‌کند. به همین دلیل این پژوهش به بررسی جایگاه دولت در فرصت های کارآفرینی پرداخته است. روش تحقیق؛ پیمایشی، جامعة آماری خانوارهـای 32 روسـتای شهرستان بهبهان و جامعه نمونه از طریق فرمول کوکران 387 نفر است. برای تجزیـه و تحلیـل اطلاعـات از آمار استنباطی (آزمون T تک نمونه ای، آزمون آنالیز واریانس یک طرفه)، توابع ترانسلوگ و ترانسندنتال و رویکرد تحلیل مسیر استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که از میان گویه‌های تبیین کننده نقش دولت در ارتقاء کارآفرینی؛ فرهنگ سازی و آموزش افرادی بومی (میزان تأثیر کل 68 درصد) به مراتب سهم غیر مستقیم بیشتری در مقایسه با سایر گویه‌ها دارد. مدیریت نوین روستایی با تأثیر کل 67 درصدی، نیز بیشترین تعداد مسیرهای برونزاد را داشته و به صورت یک ایستگاه مهم عمل می‌کند. این متغیر بصورت غیر مستقیم و با ضریب‌های همبستگی معنادار بر متغیرهای مختلف تسهیلات لازم با بهره کافی، یارانه های دولتی و بیمه محصولات تأثیرگذار است. ضروریست بیان شود که بطور کل، فرهنگ سازی و آموزش افراد بومی، تأسیس نهاده ها و شبکه های حمایت، مدیریت نوین روستایی، تسهیلات لازم با بهره کافی و یارانه‌های دولتی به ترتیب با نرخ اثرهای 68، 57، 67، 60 و 63 درصد بالاترین میزان اثر کل را داشته اند. این بدان معنی است که دولت با ایفای نقش خود از طریق گویه‌های ذکر شده می تواند نقش خود را در ارتقاء فرصت های کارآفرینی ایفا کند.
کلمات کلیدی: روستاهای شهرستان بهبهان، ارتقاء کارآفرینی، نقش دولت

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing entrepreneurial opportunities in rural areas and the role of government in promoting it Case study of Behbahan villages

نویسنده [English]

  • sara ferdosi
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
-Introduction
Behbahan County is located in the southeast of Khuzestan province and due to suitable climatic conditions and the existence of permanent rivers such as Maroon and Khairabad, Zohreh, as well as having arable and fertile soil, has provided favorable facilities for agricultural development (Statistics Center of Iran, 1397: 42). However, the entrepreneurial situation in the villages of the region is weak. Meanwhile, in the villages of Behbahan County, the number of unemployed people with higher education is very high and about 6370 people (Statistics Center of Iran, 1397: 42). As a result, the opportunities presented in this study in achieving sustainable entrepreneurship in order to create employment and sustainable income for residents and maintain the environment that is endangered due to the extraction of oil and gas products, can provide useful insights in the field.
- Methodology
The sample size was selected through Cochran's formula, 387 people and was identified using the classification sampling method with the assignment of the optimal share of each village and the people in each village were randomly selected. The dependent variable is the promotion of entrepreneurial opportunities in the region and the independent variable is the role of government in entrepreneurship development, which is measured by 10 items. Convergent validity of the latent variable of the study was also obtained through the mean of extraction variance (0.87) which showed internal consistency and appropriate convergent validity. In order to evaluate the validity of the items, first the variables were identified based on the background and in the next step, the items were adjusted according to the characteristics of the region, and finally the items were modified and finalized based on the opinions of experts and professors. Cronbach's alpha test was also used to evaluate the reliability of the research scales. The results showed that the calculated alpha value for 10 items of government role is 0.73, which is statistically acceptable. Also, in order to analyze the data, one-sample Chi-square tests were used to evaluate items, one-sample t-test was used to evaluate independent and dependent variables, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the average entrepreneurial opportunities. To understand and analyze the results of the questionnaire, the transcendental and translog production function, which is used for polynomial equations whose coefficients are also polynomial, has been used. Finally, through path analysis, which is a kind of statistical analysis of multiple regressions, and by examining the relationships between dependent variables and two or more independent variables, used to evaluate causal models, the extent and importance of causal relationships between variables is estimated.
-Results and discussion
Using the analysis of the questionnaires completed by the villagers of Behbahan County, the result of evaluating the amount of entrepreneurial opportunities in the region is examined according to the role of the government. The results of one-sample t-test are significant for all studied indicators at a level of confidence above 95% and considering that the observed mean difference is assumed to be positive (3.1), so statistically it can be said that the studied villagers are effective. These indicators have a positive opinion. Also, the level of significance and the distance from line one to one of the t-test statistic close to 2 of all indicators are statistically acceptable. Comparison of evaluation statistics shows the production functions of translog and transcendental. Also, according to the evaluation statistics of multiple determination coefficient and adjusted coefficient of determination, the transcendental model has a better evaluation than explaining the role of government in promoting entrepreneurial opportunities. The residual standard error, which is also one of the important statistics in evaluating production functions, is less in the transcendental model. Therefore, considering the adjusted coefficient of determination of the transcendental model, it can be said that the independent variables of the model are 91% effective in explaining entrepreneurial opportunities. The results of this path analysis approach show that among the items explaining the role of government in promoting entrepreneurship; Indigenous culture and education (68% of the total impact) has a much higher indirect share compared to other items. The new rural management, with a total impact of 67%, also has the largest number of exogenous routes and acts as an important station. This variable indirectly affects the various variables of necessary facilities with sufficient interest, government subsidies and product insurance with significant correlation coefficients. It is necessary to state that in general, culture and education of indigenous peoples, establishment of inputs and support networks, new rural management, necessary facilities with sufficient interest and government subsidies at the rate of effects of 68, 57, 67, 60 and 63, respectively. Percentages had the highest total effect. This means that the government can play its role in promoting entrepreneurial opportunities by playing its role through the mentioned items.
-Conclusion
This study shows well the interactions of effective variables in entrepreneurship and the role of government in rural development. At present, the amount of government investment in entrepreneurship, government support measures for entrepreneurs, and the amount of government funding for entrepreneurship opportunities, as well as institutions providing funding from the government, are able to finance the acquisition of entrepreneurial businesses. are not. Therefore, the growth of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas depends on the design and application of new financing management methods such as government support measures for rural entrepreneurship. However, unfortunately, the role of the government in creating jobs and entrepreneurship in the villages of Behbahan is very small. Considering the potential opportunities of Behbahan villages in realizing sustainable entrepreneurship and in order to create employment and income for rural residents, using these opportunities and government support can have a beneficial impact on business creation. And have rural entrepreneurship for the sustainable development of rural areas. Unemployment is one of the main challenges in this region, while these villages have a lot of talent to earn money and create jobs.
Keywords: Villages of Behbahan County, promoting entrepreneurship, the role of government

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

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  • Keywords"
  • Villages of Behbahan"
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  • County"
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  • entrepreneurship "
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  • role of government"

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 04 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ دریافت: 07 مرداد 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 04 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 04 بهمن 1399