عنوان مقاله [English]
In third world and developing countries, of which Iran is one of them, whenever we talk about development and progress, we mainly pay attention to human characteristics and factors, population dispersion and also the rural texture of such abundant countries. These societies, which face many problems due to backwardness and under development, try in various ways to reduce the disorders caused by under development by implementing various development programs and to take steps to improve the living conditions of the people. In recent decades, there have been major problems in the process of modernization and structural transformation in developing societies, resistance to the acceptance of new ideas, innovations, and any new ideas and designs, especially in rural areas, especially in rural areas. They know their cultural and traditional beliefs. In principle, different societies and cultures differ in terms of individual and personality characteristics and areas of acceptance of development programs. One of the most important and central theories in the school of modernization is the theory of the peasant subculture Rogers. Scholars in this field believe that all traditional beliefs must be discarded in order for development to emerge. In the discussion of "rural subculture", Rogers believes that the main obstacles to modernization and development stem from the way of life and culture of the villagers, and elements such as motivations, values and views in the form of peasant subculture. It hinders innovation and acceptance of change in rural communities, and negative and deterrent factors of economic development have been assumed. Looking at the early theories of development, we see that most theorists (Rogers, McClelland, Hagen, Engels, etc.) believe that development is a phenomenon of anti-traditions, beliefs, localism and anti-familyism. Etc. Because it contradicts many tribal ethnic beliefs and traditions, but now, despite development in rural areas, we are witnessing the presence of traditional beliefs and values, and in a sense we can say that development has made traditions more flourishing. Is. The present study aimed to investigate the elements of peasant subculture theory that Rogers considered as obstacles to development. The theory has been tested in Glin village of Sanandaj city in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the social context of the study community, in order to determine whether the elements of the peasant subculture as Rogers has considered in the community The check is valid.
In this study, the researcher used qualitative approach techniques to test the Rogers peasant subculture theory for understanding and understanding the peasant view of the village of Galin. In this research, two purposeful sampling and theoretical sampling have been used. In the present study, data were collected through techniques such as in-depth interviews, participatory observation, and focused group discussion. Therefore, in the present study, 344 heads of households in Galin village constitute the statistical population of the study. In the research process, sampling of individuals and interpretation of interviews continued gradually and step by step from heads of households to the stage of theoretical saturation, and this process was interviewed with 35 heads of households and for the gradual process of data collection by the time the theoretical saturation was reached, seven groups of five were formed to conduct focused group discussions, and the researcher would begin the discussion by raising the issues under consideration. The researcher recorded the data on paper during group discussions and interviews, and at the end of each day, the process of interpretation and sampling was done gradually, and the data collection continued until the stage of theoretical saturation.
Results and discussion
In the present study, which is based on the elements of the peasant subculture. These elements are: lack of innovation, family orientation, lack of mutual trust in personal relationships, dependence on government, destiny, low level of aspirations and desires, inability to ignore immediate interests to achieve future benefits, limited time perspective, Localism and lack of empathy. According to the research findings, the elements of the peasant subculture in the mentioned society do not correspond to what Rogers and other theorists in this field have proposed. So that only in the component of mutual distrust in personal relationships, the findings show people's dissatisfaction with the current situation due to lack of trust between them. Whereas in the past, despite the underdevelopment of the village, the level of trust among people has been high. In this study, from the heart of the subculture that has been considered as an obstacle to development for years, the idea has been raised that subcultures are not necessarily an obstacle to development. Based on these subcultures, it is possible to create a development that creates a sense of participation and responsibility, and contributes to the development and destiny of the people, and determines their participation in development programs.
The present study aims to analyze the elements of peasant subculture theory that Rogers considered as obstacles to development, has been tested in Galin village of Sanandaj city. In this way, a comprehensive understanding of the social context of the study community is obtained, in order to determine whether the elements of the peasant subculture apply to the study community in the way that Rogers has considered. Therefore, in the end, it can be concluded that such existing issues are one of the requirements of rural planning for the cultural development of villages. Because the diversity of different ethnicities and cultures requires its own programs. If the components of rural subculture are reconstructed and rethought by conducting correct studies in accordance with modern needs and current conditions of society, they can act as a stimulus in the process of rural development and participation. And as long as we can hope for the development of the studied society, the endogenous approach to development will be the basis of change and create cultural and social contexts.