عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, with the development of statistical and computer methods in geographical studies, the use of various indicators in various fields is the most common method in the classification of tourism services. The purpose of this study is to level the access space to tourism services in Bushehr using GIS and fuzzy logic. In this study, expert opinions in the field of tourism and urban services were used to prioritize and weight ten indicators related to tourism services in the coastal city of Bushehr with the help of hierarchical analysis in Expert Choice software. After fuzzy information layers using fuzzy community function and applying output weights to each of the information layers in ArcGIS software, after combining the related maps, the final leveling map of access to Bushehr tourism services was created using fuzzy logic operators. The generated map shows that the access level is in the very suitable range, 19.1% and the suitable range is 23.56% of the area, and for the medium, unsuitable and very unsuitable access areas, 26.84%, 19.69% and 10.81% of the covers area, respectively.
Among the service industries, the tourism industry is one of the leading and growing sectors in the international arena. The tourism industry has been growing in recent decades and has had a huge impact on the economies of countries. The general concept of access is easy to understand, accessibility in the city is related to distance and time. The distance factor is reflected in the cost of travel, fuel consumption or physical energy, and the like. The longer the distance, the longer it takes to reach the destination and, as a result, the higher the costs. Increasing both factors (distance and time) means poor access and decreasing both means good access. Therefore, increasing accessibility and reducing distance and time is another basic principle of urban planning. Proper access to tourism services is one of the most important parameters that play an important and decisive role in the social welfare of tourists and the field of tourism in general. Given that access to services is the link between the two elements of demand (tourists) and supply (supply centers), efficient and desirable tourism services and its optimal and appropriate distribution for tourists and other users, significantly contribute to the balance of other tourism functions. Therefore, with the help of spatial planning as one of the powerful tools in the field of allocating resources to priority spaces and places, it is possible to determine the best places for tourism services in the best way.
To explain the literature and background of the research subject, library studies were conducted, and to collect information, according to the nature of the research, field methods were used and the data collection tool was a questionnaire. Besides, various maps and images of Google Earth were used to prepare base maps and extract information based on geographical locations and area characteristics.
Accordingly, the importance of indicators based on different sources in determining the location of tourism services and opinions were investigated and after collecting a questionnaire, the results were extracted. To determine the relative weight and rank of each factor, the data were analyzed with hierarchical analysis by Expert Choice software. Then each of the information layers was made fuzzy in the ArcGIS software environment and was placed in the range 0 to 1. In the next step, by combining the AHP and fuzzy models, all fuzzy layers were prepared based on the linear function of the fuzzy set in the weights obtained from the multiplicative hierarchical analysis model as weighted fuzzy layers. Then, among the fuzzy operators, the fuzzy community operator was used and applied on the fuzzy layers and the overlapping of the information layers was done and the final map of access to tourism services in the coastal city of Bushehr was specified in five floors.
Results and Discussion
In this system, considered a spatial distribution from the perspective of tourism services and according to 10 criteria and in the form of production of spatial distribution roles of each of these criteria.
To evaluate the spatial distribution in Bushehr tourism system, after determining the levels of importance and fuzzification of information layers with Fuzzy overly command in ArcGIS environment, 10 layers of information integrated using fuzzy logic, ten layers of information integrated using fuzzy logic, the final fuzzy map of the levels of access to municipal services was determined with the help of the Raster calculator command and the weight applied to them. In the final map, the level of access to tourism services is divided into very appropriate, appropriate, normal, inappropriate, and very inappropriate categories.
The study of access maps based on the spatial distribution factor in Bushehr tourism system indicates that the southern regions of Bushehr, in addition to coastal criteria, there is a lack of appropriate spatial distribution for tourism and development activities in other criteria, including the economic and infrastructure sectors. The final map obtained from the combination of all the benchmark layers produced shows that the access level in the most suitable range includes 19.1% of the area and for level 2 (suitable), 23.56% of the area of the study area and for medium access zones, inappropriate and very inappropriate cover 26.84%, 19.69% and 10.81% of the region, respectively, which shows that the areas inclined to the south and south of Bushehr have a very poor level of access. What is certain is that the current situation indicates a lack of symmetrical distribution of urban services in the southern part and the second urban area compared to the northern part of the city (urban 1st district).
Tourism services, Bushehr city, Geographic information system, Hierarchical analysis, Fuzzy logic