بررسی اهمیت احساس امنیت در کیفیت فضاهای شهری و عوامل مؤثر بر آن؛ مطالعه موردی: پیاده‌راه مرکزی شهرهمدان و محلات پیرامون

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی- برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

احساس امنیت در فضاهای شهری به‌عنوان مسئله مورد نیاز شهروندان مطرح است که در صورت عدم امنیت در آن‌ها شرایط برای وقوع جرم بسیار مستعدتر است. هدف پژوهش، تعیین روابط علّی بین متغیر مستقل احساس امنیت و متغیر وابسته کیفیت فضاهای شهری است. روش تحقیق، از نوع همبستگی و در چارچوب روش‌های تحلیلی است. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، از تکنیک پرسشنامه استفاده‌شد. پرسشنامه‌ها بین 365 نفر از مراجعه‌کنندگان انجام شد. جامعه نمونه به‌صورت خوشه‌ای بین کارشناسان و شهروندان انتخاب شد و پایایی پرسشنامه با الفای‌کرونباخ 899/0محاسبه گردید. در تحلیل مسیر، ریسک و مخاطره (ریسک اعتماد کردن) با ضریب مسیر 655/0 اولین تبیین‌کننده احساس امنیت در کیفیت فضای شهری پیاده‌راه مرکزی شهرهمدان است. نتایج ضریب همبستگی بین متغیر احساس امنیت بر کیفیت فضاهای شهری 925/0 و دارای سطح معناداری بسیار زیاد (000/0(Sig: است، یعنی هر چقدر میزان احساس امنیت افزایش یابد، کیفیت فضای شهری نیز افزایش می‌یابد. یافته‌های توصیفی حاکی از آن است که پاسخ‌دهندگان میزان ریسک اعتمادکردن و بی‌نظمی اجتماعی را در سطح بالایی ارزیابی کرده‌اند. در ارتباط با متغیر حمایت اجتماعی؛ اکثر پاسخ‌دهندگان نسبت به کمک دیگران در مواقع اضطراری امیدی نداشتند و امداد و یاری آن‌ها در امر اجتماع را در سطح پایین می‌دانستند. همچنین پاسخ‌دهندگان میزان وقوع جرایم بزهکاری در محیط پیاده‌راه مرکزی شهرهمدان و محلات پیرامونی را نیز در سطح پایینی ارزیابی می‌کنند. نتایج پژوهش نمایانگر آن است که احساس امنیت به‌عنوان متغیر مستقل با متغیرهای بی‌نظمی اجتماعی، درک از بروز جرایم و بزهکاری، نظارت اجتماعی، اجتماعی، فعالیت‌ها-کاربری‌ها، حمایت اجتماعی و ریسک اعتماد کردن همبستگی معنی‌داری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the importance of the feeling of security in the quality of urban spaces And its effective factors; Case study of the central sidewalk of Hamedan and surrounding neighborhoods

نویسندگان [English]

  • hasan Ahmadi 1
  • mehrdad mehrjou 2
1 Assistant Professor., department of urban planning and design, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 graduate student of Urbanism-urban planning, department of urban planning and design, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

introduction
Security is the prerequisite for a healthy society and the feeling of security is the basis for the development of human societies, and the prosperity of a community in the group of maintaining and maintaining security and the feeling of security resulting from it; Therefore, establishing security in the urban structure and citizens' sense of security is of increasing importance. There are some urban spaces that provide the ground for disturbing order and security. Space and mass are closely related; Therefore, human behavior in space and different places in relation to the sense of security with a specific shape and geometry, as well as with the function embedded in it, is different and in many cases, space; Human motivation in the occurrence of certain behaviors is essential to create security in that place and space. Creating quiet spaces away from social unrest with a sense of security to the people and also increasing the quality of urban spaces by paying attention to the basic needs of urban life is considered as one of the benefits of urban space. In many cases, the type of physical space design, the role that a particular place takes on, and the social dimensions of an area lead to spaces becoming safe or, conversely, unsafe. In other words, urban spaces with their characteristics are somehow a trigger for the crime. Apart from the social and cultural effects of planning and design, safe urban environments on patterns of citizenship behavior and improving the environmental quality of urban spaces, reducing urban crime and crime are independent and important issues.
Methodology
The purpose of this study is to determine the causal relationship between the independent variable of feeling of security and the dependent variable of the quality of urban spaces.The research method in this research is correlational and within the framework of analytical methods.The method of data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire.Indicators and factors evaluated in the research were extracted with an emphasis on measurability and measurability by reviewing the relevant texts.For this purpose,the number of extracted factors and indicators were documented in accordance with the study area.Pearson correlation test and linear regression were performed to investigate the relationship between the feeling of security and the quality of urban spaces in the area of the central sidewalk.And with SmartPLS software,the model fits the calculation model and the structural analytical model in the research on the variables was presented.To calculate the reliability and validity (mean of extracted variance of AVE),the factors of the questionnaires were performed among 365 people referring to the central pedestrian urban spaces studied and urban planning and social science experts.The sample population was selected as a cluster between experts and citizens and the reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach's alpha of 0.899.This area is located in the center of the city,which has become a central sidewalk in recent years.In this regard,research was conducted to determine whether citizens and visitors feel safe in this urban space or feel safe.In their opinion,it depends on what factors.This stage of sampling is measured in one step.The indicators and dimensions used in the research have a multidimensional structure.
Results and discussion
Walking alone at night,women traveling alone at night,traveling in their own cars on the streets around the square,sending children to school for long distances are acceptable to residents and staff.Social disorder sense of security with correlation coefficient P=0.74;From the point of view of the visitors to the square and the merchant,acknowledging that since the study complex has become a sidewalk,the rate of burglary,the rate of extortion and extortion of citizens in this place,the rate of harassment of people in this space,the rate of drug use And the public presence of addicts,car theft in the square itself has been eliminated and has been reduced in the surrounding areas.Therefore,according to the components analyzed the sense of security, it can be said that the greater the sense of security P=0/871 and the degree of correlation of its indicators The rate of conversion of urban spaces into urban spaces with a sense of security, including; Holding religious and cultural activities and ceremonies, entertainment and service activities, the level of communication between people, how women and children are present in this space, access to various types of public transportation, distribution of bus and taxi stations, access for pedestrians and cyclists, etc. It also increases in proportion to the feeling of security in this urban space.
Conclusion
In general, the results indicate that there is a significant relationship between the feeling of security and the quality of urban spaces. Therefore, it can be concluded that urban spaces according to the existing social conditions; That is, the formation of spaces, the function of spaces, can affect the level of security. Creating calm spaces away from social unrest and also increasing the quality of the environment by paying attention to the basic needs of urban life is considered as the desirability of urban space. The results show that the more people are present in the form of social support and monitoring in urban spaces, the more citizens feel safe. Considering the effect of citizens 'presence on the feeling of security, it can be concluded that maintaining the security of the city is the main task of urban spaces and open and public (public) areas of a city in case of citizens' traffic and supervision on the central sidewalk. Descriptive findings related to independent variables indicate that respondents rated the risk of trust and social disorder at a high level. In relation to the social support variable; Most respondents had no hope of helping others in an emergency and considered their help and assistance in the community to be low. Respondents also assess the incidence of delinquency in the central sidewalk environment at a low level.
Keywords: the feeling of security, trust, urban space, central sidewalk, Hamedan, SEM.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • the feeling of security
  • urban space
  • central sidewalk
  • Hamedan
  • SEM

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 05 مرداد 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 22 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 03 مرداد 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 05 مرداد 1400