عنوان مقاله [English]
The study of physical development pattern with the approach of infill development
case study: Miandoab
The Physical expansion and increase in density and accumulation within cities will be Inevitable. Horizontal expansion of cities to the suburbs and the periphery, in addition to the financial costs of development for governments, from social aspects, it also causes the destruction of social justice. "Infill development or the increase" Politics," is one of the city's physical development and growth policies, that use of existing capacity within cities and revitalize declining areas of focus for future growth. In this way, we can develop the inner tissue of the city, Rehabilitation of abandoned and unused spaces, Revival of worn tissues and increase of dense balance, Achieved, to sustainable urban development Which is the most important challenge facing humanity in the 21st century. Infill development approach in direct contact with the idea of smart growth city and it is part of the guidelines. Infill development has many features that the sustainable development of the city that is very important. so, Infill development It is one of the fundamental solutions for the sustainable development of cities. It can be prefabricated, In small or high units and in a reconstructed form, Revitalization of (Historical) and etc.
The present research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. Research data collection is based on documentary-library and field methods. The study area is the city of Miandoab. Shannon and Holdern entropy models have been used to analyze the shape of the city. Also, the hierarchical analysis process was used to compare the binary criteria and the final weight of these criteria was calculated using Expert choice11 software.
Results and discussion
Analysis of internal development indicators in the city of Miandoab
The results of the Holdern model for the city of Miandoab show that, about 33% of the physical growth of the city was related to population growth and 67% was related to the horizontal and spiral growth of the city, which led to a decrease in gross population density and an increase in gross per capita urban land, resulting in horizontal urban sprawl.
The entropy value (G) of Miandoab city has been calculated for the years 2006, which is equal to 0.933. The fact that the entropy value is close to 1 indicates the scattered growth of the city and the spiral phenomenon that has occurred in the city of Miandoab during these years. Also, the proximity of the total entropy frequency (H), 1.672, to the maximum value of LN (n), 1.792, indicates the scattered growth of this city. In the building density index, about 70% of residential license plates in Miandoab are one-floor, 25% are two-floor and 5% are 2-floor and more. Study areas No. 1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, which mainly include the areas around the city and the villages integrated into the city, have a low building density (up to 60%). Therefore, these areas have great potential for internal development in terms of building density index. The highest population density, which is over 100 people and more per hectare, is in the central areas of the city. Open and barren lands in Miandoab city include 13.9%, 4913,620 square meters of the area. These lands have different areas from 50 square meters to 3 hectares. Given that barren and abandoned lands are the main potential for internal development, the first priority for internal development is the same barren and abandoned lands. In the city of Miandoab, about 70% of residential license plates can be used in terms of the type of building materials used, 20% of residential license plates are repaired and 10% are destroyed. Most of the residential buildings in the suburbs that are within the city limits are destroyed and repaired. study conducted in the city of Miandoab indicate the dominance of buildings with load-bearing wall structures. These buildings make up 46% of the existing buildings in the city. Based on this, half of the buildings in Miandoab can be considered low-strength. Steel-framed buildings with a 32% share are in the second level. The lowest type of building skeleton is related to clay and mud buildings. Also, more than 75% of the buildings in Miandoab are less than 25 years old, which shows the greatest development of the city since the 60th decade. In the city of Miandoab, about 70% of the residential license plates of a one-floor city, 25% two floors and 5% of the plots are 2 floors up.
The results of the research indicate that, Number areas 4, 10, 19, 20, 21 with the first priority of development and areas 2, 11, 17 with the second priority of internal development, Areas 1,15 with the third priority of development, Area 18 with low internal development potential and the rest of the constituencies, which are north of the 7, 8, 12, 13, 16 constituencies, have very low internal development potential. It can be acknowledged that the neighborhoods with the highest development potential have a relatively high value in most of the criteria and the neighborhoods with low development potential have the lowest value. In general, due to the large area of barren lands within the legal boundaries of the city and the capacity to increase building density, especially in the eastern parts of the city, Existence of gross residential per capita, Existence of land uses and old buildings in Miandoab city has a high potential for endogenous development and there is no need to increase the city limits and construction around the city and it is better to develop endogenously to reduce the dispersion.
Keywords: Infill development, Sustainable Development, Sprawl, Miandoab.