عنوان مقاله [English]
The city is the largest human artificial environment and the result of human encounter as a creature full of belief and value with nature.The body of the city and its current spirit is a perfect representation of the cultural,political and economic relations of the inhabitants of a city.The lack of child discourse and their place in the city, the dominance of adult discourse, the powerlessness of children, the perception of the child as a person without purity and in need of guardianship, are just some of the reasons for not paying attention to children in urban life.In fact, because children make up a significant portion of the urban population, are in an important period of socialization, and will be citizens and future decision makers of the city, they need more attention in urban studies.
A child-friendly city is a developmental concept of the city that emphasizes the rights and perceptions of children within their place, so that they can live, learn, grow and play in their place.The right to the city is an issue of a social, political and legal nature that, based on the concept of citizenship, demands a legal set for all city residents to use the context of urban life in a transparent and fair manner.The concept of the right to the city also seeks to protect all urban residents, especially vulnerable groups. In fact, it seeks to support those groups that are defined in law and regulation as "special threat groups". Examples of these groups are: women, victims of violence, the elderly, people with disabilities, youth, children.
Accordingly, children, like all sections of society, have a right to urban space; Rights that have so far been either ignored or denied.Therefore, NGOs, civil society, professional associations, local authorities and governments should look for ways to democratize urban planning and pay attention to everyone, including children. The Charter of the Right to the City, meanwhile, is a tool that contributes to the process of recognizing citizens'rights in the international human rights system.The main element of this right is the right to use cities fairly without the right to own, damage or change it.The right to the city on issues such as equality and non-discrimination, special protection of vulnerable individuals and groups, increasing economic solidarity and progressive constructive policies,fair and sustainable urban development, participation, transparency, the right to public information, freedom, justice, assembly, the right to Public security and peaceful coexistence based on peace, solidarity and multiculturalism, access to and provision of public and domestic public services, right to public transportation, right to housing, education, employment, right to culture and leisure, and health, and right to the environment in particular He pays serious attention to children.This concept provides a framework for discussing civil rights and responsibilities and a tool for urban change and the realization of a citizen-centered city.
Accordingly, this study intends to analyze the components related to improving the quality of urban spaces for children in the District 12 of Tehran metropolis ,with the right to the city approach.The present research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method.The statistical population includes a group of residents of District 12 of Tehran in 1399. In order to estimate the sample size, SPSS Sample Power software was used, According to the objectives and hypotheses of the research as well as the presuppositions related to possible sampling (confidence level, test power, effect size and number of variables involved in the analysis), the statistical sample size of the research for this region was estimated at 120 people.The sampling method was multi-stage cluster. In this way, in the first stage, regions are considered as a general cluster and neighborhoods are considered as sub-clusters and blocks within neighborhoods are considered as sub-clusters of regions.Then according to the number of samples assigned to each region; Several blocks were randomly selected from each area and several households within the blocks were systematically questioned.Based on this, the dimensions and components of the research were extracted.The most important dimensions of improving the quality of urban spaces for children, with the approach of the right to the city are: physical dimension, cultural dimension, the right to start a good life, protection against danger, education and knowledge and standard of living.T-statistic was used to analyze the data.
Results and discussion
According to the research findings, the average dimensions of life initiation, risk protection, standard of living, physical and cultural in region 12 are lower than the average (3). Therefore, this area is not in a good condition. Meanwhile, only the value of education and knowledge dimension (3.83) is higher than the average and the situation of the region is appropriate in terms of this dimension. According to T-statistics, only the dimensions of education and knowledge (3.01) and physical (4.82) are in good condition. However, the components of a good start in life (-2.10), protection against danger (-2.42), standard of living (2.62) and culture (2.12) are in poor condition.Based on the results of T statistics, the status of the components of the right to leisure and activity (3.65), the right to education (4.04), the right to communication (3.03), facilities and infrastructure (5.22) and green space (4.47) are in good condition.At the same time, components such as the right to start a healthy life (-3.01), the right to safe water and health (-0.03), the right to emergency preparedness (0.50), the right to safety (-3.43), care Special (2.87), the right to access information (-1.85), the right to social justice (1.27), the right to quality of life (2.48), the right to the environment (1.35) and the right to mobility (2.92) They are not in a good condition.To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, 30 questionnaires were randomly completed in area 12 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for the relevant dimensions and indicators.For all dimensions and components, the obtained value was more than 0.70.The total alpha value is calculated to be 0.79. Therefore, there is reliability for the data.
Keywords:child-friendly city, Right to the City,Child, The Quality of urban spaces, District 12, SPSS Sample Power