نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران
2 استاد دانشگاه ایوان جاوخشلی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، تفلیس، گرجستان
عنوان مقاله [English]
The metropolis of Tehran is governed by 25 governmental and non-governmental organizations, each of which has its own rules and regulations. Despite the uncontrolled growth of mushrooms in the metropolis of Tehran, it can be said that the management system in this metropolitan area has not grown much and even with the increase of the institutions in charge of this city, the level of services provided has decreased. In other words, it seems that the metropolis of Tehran is a city divided into a number of territories (political segregation) in each of which there are different institutions working in the field of city administration (functional segregation) and these institutions and organizations They do not have a single plan, plan and strategy as a work tool to perform their duties and responsibilities. Accordingly, in order to understand the power relations in the metropolis of Tehran, we need to identify key actors in this metropolis so that each of these actors with different sources of power, have different identities and beings and may be institutions or Government organizations, individuals or grassroots communities, NGOs or private corporations should not have the same influence and power, and it should be noted that actors have the same capacity and ability to advance goals. And they have no policies in response to key issues. An actor (or, in a more specific sense, a stakeholder) is a social institution, an individual, or an organization that can make a decision or influence its adoption. From this perspective, policy issues and policy processes involve multiple actors (parties), because we believe that there is no single actor who can unilaterally impose his desired solution on others. Rather, some form of cooperation between the parties is needed; The actors are interdependent.
Result and Discussion:
Geopolitical actors of Tehran metropolis: Today, cities have found a geopolitical position in the world due to the importance of acting in power relations. Meanwhile, Tehran, as the political capital of Iran, has geopolitical actors at different levels. The metropolis of Tehran has the effect that knowing these actors can be of considerable help to researchers in the field of urban geopolitical studies and urban management, which we will discuss in the following.
Local actors of Tehran metropolis: Tehran metropolis, like many political capitals of the world, has many actors because Tehran metropolis has a special place in the country in terms of policies and decisions and the flow of capital and power in this metropolis In the meantime, local actors are among the actors present in Tehran. Hence, local actors refer to actors who live in urban areas. These actors include citizens, ethnicities, some private companies, municipalities, city councils, governorates, governorates, non-governmental organizations active in the metropolitan area, urban elites, urban ambassadors, factories. Irankhodro and Saipa, food industries and large factories, insurance companies, consulting engineering companies, owners of commercial passages, tower builders are among the local actors present in the metropolis of Tehran.
National actors of Tehran metropolis: National actors present in Tehran: National actors are among the immediate actors in urban spaces. These actors are either resident in the city, such as representatives of the central government, or they are located outside the city and in other national spaces and affect the urban space in different ways. Such as Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, High Council of Urban Planning and Architecture, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Government and Cabinet, Expediency Council, Military and Law Enforcement Forces, High Council of Urban Planning and Architecture, High Administrative Council, Ministry of Interior, Governorate, Organization Registration of documents, Endowment and Charity Organization, Management and Planning Organization, Environmental Protection Organization, Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, New Cities Development Company, Inspection Organization, Court of Administrative Justice, Provincial Planning and Development Council, Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation , National Regional Gas Company, Regional Telecommunication Company.
. The results of the present study show that the political capital of Iran (Tehran metropolis) is managed and led by many organizations and institutions and is not a final decision-making organization alone because each of these organizations is part of urban spaces. And they have taken over the resources of the metropolis of Tehran with the power they have in their hands, and they manage those resources for profit, in the meantime, other organizations cannot determine and assign a task for that part of the urban spaces. Which is under the control of another organization, which shows that each of the local and national actors have gained power based on the position they hold and are influencing power relations in the metropolis of Tehran. Even this power is so great that national actors choose their own local actors for the urban management of Tehran metropolis and through them, the actors pursue their interests, which has been the fate of the political elections in Iran and the metropolis of Tehran for several years. In power relations are tied together.
Finally, not all actors in the metropolis of Tehran can be considered as geopolitical actors, because in order to act in the space of Tehran, actors need to have power, or in other words, power-creating resources, among which are local actors (tower builders). , Town planners and owners of commercial passages; owners of factories, industries and large commercial and insurance companies; governorate; governorate; municipality and city council) as geopolitical actors of Tehran metropolis at the local level. Among the national actors (cabinet and subordinate ministries; members of parliament, banks and financial institutions; judiciary; political parties and the Radio and Television Organization) are among the geopolitical actors of the metropolis of Tehran that have the most role and influence. On power relations in the metropolis of Tehran, which in this relationship showed that even this power is enough that a member of parliament is appointed as the helmsman of Tehran's urban management in the municipality. On this basis, other actors, due to lack of power and power resources, have less role in power relations in the metropolis of Tehran or can not enter into these relations and somehow lack any power.