نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشگاه پیام نور
2 گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه زنجان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to their very close relationship with the natural environment, villages face the most obstacles in the path of rural development if they do not recognize the environmental capabilities in planning. Environmental capacity assessment is one of the basic topics in land use planning today. In the discussion of land management, maintaining a balance between environmental factors and the location of rural projects has led to the environmental empowerment approach in rural planning and development to be considered because any action to establish and develop rural settlements is related. It is closely related to environmental factors.
Rural settlements as the bedrock of human life and activities are a multidimensional issue. The issue of rural settlements is one of the broader issues that is reflected at the national and regional levels and it is necessary to research in all its dimensions, especially in the pattern of their spatial settlement. Lack of adequate and comprehensive knowledge and attention to natural criteria for the establishment of rural settlements, in addition to wasting resources and facilities, also increases the losses and costs of natural disasters.
The pattern of spatial settlement and rural settlement due to the dependence of most of its production activities on natural factors and conditions, is more affected by natural factors than urban settlement. One of the determining factors in the location of settlements is the roughness and shape of the land. There is a close relationship between unevenness factors and rural activities. Natural factors such as sea, mountains, hills or other uneven phenomena play an important role in limiting or expanding villages and act as a deterrent and limiting factor for rural settlements.
With a brief look at the rural community of the country, we find that this community has always faced problems and issues from the past to the present; Problems such as lack of infrastructure facilities, inadequate quality of environment, low income, inadequate system of settlement and excessive dispersion of population and activities, small settlements, impossibility of optimal investment in these places, etc.) Natural resources, provide the basis a pattern of Establishmen of human settlements in geographical space and the spatial structure of each place is the manifestation of interaction between humans and the environment. In the current situation, there is a general agreement in development studies based on which the realization of sustainable development In rural areas need to be reconsidered by active groups including thinkers on how to use natural resources And the organization of affairs related to them. There is no doubt that the stability of natural factors to the power of rural areas against disturbances increase the number of people whose forecasting and management is limited.
This research is based on the purpose of the applied type. The research method in this research is descriptive-analytical. To collect information, statistical data of documents in organizations and libraries and GIS software were used to analyze the existing maps. The AHP method has been used to determine the level of ecological capabilities. In this method, pairwise comparisons have been used by experts and weight has been analyzed in Expert choice software. Suitable and prone to land management have been Used.
Results and discussion
It can be said that the natural resources of each region are the most important factor determining the type of economic activity as well as the distribution of population in That is the areaAccording to the National Center for Land Management in 2006, the regulation of interaction between human and natural factors in order to create a land organization is based on the optimal use of human talents and the environment (National Center for Land Management, 2006: 3). Therefore, any study and planning for change in rural areas requires careful study and achievement. With a correct knowledge of their construction, texture and dispersion pattern, in this way the GIS system of power And has a good ability to recognize the space and the capabilities of the natural environment. And this leads to the ability of the settlement to meet the needs of its residents and ultimately Increases the capacity to sustain life.
Assessing environmental potential as one of the dimensions of sustainable development is one of the most important issues that is considered and emphasized on all regional development programs, both urban and rural, so that any new discussion about development without regard to basic concept is considered unfinished (Badri and Eftekhari, 2003: 9). Land management is the rational distribution of the population in the land and the optimal use of natural and human resources. One of the goals of land management is the optimal productivity of the social and natural capacities of the land and the creation of development space.
Achieving sustainable development and efficient and effective use of resources depends on a comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the capabilities and limitations that we face in achieving the desired situation. Optimal use of land in natural resource management projects as recognizing the ecological potential of the land, which by understanding the principles and concepts of the environment in the plans provides the ground for the creation of development activities. Accordingly, the correct choice of location in development plans, if done in coordination with the physical and environmental construction, will maintain and improve its quality and prevent environmental damage. Awareness of these environmental characteristics will enable human beings to make maximum use of resources while providing knowledge by achieving the most appropriate option.
The results show that there is a significant relationship between environmental capabilities and the location of settlements. Although it is impossible to have a place with all the necessary standards in terms of environment, but in the study area in proportion to the reduction of environmental capacity performance of the number rural settlements have been reduced and a total of 80% of villages have been located in suitable places with environmental potential