نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران
2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The urban squares of Hamedan that are studied in this research are in fact historical sites that, as a result of urban developments, are located inside urban squares today. Nevertheless, they still retain their function as a social base for citizens. Although the middle island of these squares is now surrounded by cars, people are even more likely to use them. The present study seeks to explain the relationship between the green centers of old neighborhoods and contemporary park-squares as two types of symbolic green places in Hamedan with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The question is what are the similarities in the causes of the symbolic green spaces of the city of Hamadan (Chaman and park-square) and also the reasons for their high presence in the same traffic hazards? What factors in each of the physical, functional and semantic aspects have a greater impact on the significance of the place in comparison with Chaman and park-square? In this regard, with the technique of gap analysis with the help of a structured questionnaire, four contemporary park-squares with four samples of old Chamans in Hamedan have been comparatively evaluated in terms of sustainability factors. Gate Technique was used to quantify pedestrian traffic in the study samples and SPSS22 and Excell software were used to analyze the questionnaire data. The results show that semantic factors including the importance and validity and uniqueness, reduce the gap between the factors of presence and sustainability of these two species of symbolic green places. In contrast, factors of shape including visual landscape, natural elements and confinement and independence, and the activity factor of safety and sound comfort, have increased the gap between these two types of symbolic social centers.
Some spaces find symbolic and lasting identities and effects due to special characteristics or special backgrounds and developments that can be easily transferred from one generation to another. In this research, grasses (Green Square of neighborhood) and parks-squares of Hamedan are studied as two types of such symbolic places. Since the function and area of the pedestrian area and sometimes the green space in the studied samples are so large that they are out of the definition of the square, in the present version, the name of the park square has been referred to them. The form, meaning and function of these two types of collective spaces (grasses-squares) have changed from the past until now, and their comparative analysis can be effective in identifying the reasons for the social importance of each. Study fields are on the one hand the main high-risk traffic nodes and on the other hand, the most attractive social spaces of the city. With their tombs, shrines, ancient elements and ancient trees, these places play the dual role of a square and an urban park on a large scale in modern urban planning, which is contrary to the current role of contemporary squares as a facilitator of car movement in front of a safe space. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the significance of these symbolic green places and to compare the two with each other in order to analyze the commonalities and differences in form, activity and meaning.
Two stages of research were designed to answer the questions. The first stage was to study the historical background of the grasses of neighborhoods and parks in Hamedan and to study the physical and functional dimensions related to it, which was done qualitatively. In the second stage, by selecting four important parks in the city and four samples of standing grass in the old part of Hamedan as analytical samples, a descriptive-survey method was used to examine the indicators of shape, activity and meaning to determine the relationship between these two species of symbolic places and Generally green should be explored. Thus, in order to advance the second phase of the research, three executive subdivisions were defined. The first part was done qualitatively with observation and photography tools, the second part was done quantitatively with gate counting technique and the third part was done quantitatively with questionnaire tools and gap analysis technique. To be more precise, at first, by attending the sites of 8 study samples (including 4 neighborhood lawns and 4 park squares), observational characteristics, existing activities and related semantic factors were observed and recorded.
Results and discussion
Whereas the aim of this research is to find similarities in the causes of significance of symbolic green places as well as the reasons for their high presence and also to obtain the most effective factors in the significance of study places; Therefore, for comparative evaluation, a questionnaire tool and a gap analysis technique were used. Thus, by selecting 19 items, comparative study of the shape of space (8 items), space activity (6 items) and the meaning of space (5 items) in two categories of study samples (grass-park) by asking 354 citizens who have full knowledge and They had a history of attending lawns and study parks.
The results show that the similarities in the reasons for the significance of the symbolic green places of Hamadan and also the reasons for their high presence in traffic hazards are mainly dependent on semantic factors. These meanings depend on the antiquity and historical background in the lawns and in the park squares on the significant elements, symbols and signs and uniqueness, and in both of them on their importance and validity. Other similarities in the causes of the presence of lawns and playgrounds, which are obtained by examining the high values of correlation coefficients, include form factors including the material and color of the surfaces and the size and dimensions of the space. The output values in comparison with the lawn and the park square indicate that the space shape indicators, including natural factors, visual landscape, and confinement and independence, have created a greater gap in terms of impact on mana; In such a way that the first two indicators in the park field and the third indicator in the grass have more favorable conditions.