عنوان مقاله [English]
The Covid-19 pandemic, the outbreak of which is attributed to Wuhan, China, has had severe effects worldwide on all industries, including the tourism industry. Sample tourism areas are one of the most important spaces that attract tourists and travelers in our country, which are established and managed by the non-governmental sector in order to provide services to tourists. The administrations of 50 exemplary tourism regions, Kermanshah province, as one of the potential provinces, are active in attracting tourists and providing services to them. It is one of the typical tourist areas of Kermanshah province, Sarab Ravansar, which is situated on Mount Shaho due to its beautiful landscape. Also, being in the vicinity of the central communication axis between cities, and a short distance from the border bazaar, this city, welcomes many tourists and travelers throughout the year. During the pandemic, the significant effects of Covid-19 have been accepted by the activists located in the area of this tourist attraction, like other tourist spots. Examining it can, while clarifying the dimensions of the impact of the pandemic on tourism activists, provide the necessary background and platform for future planning in the face of similar crises. Therefore, the central question of the current research is:
-What are the most important socio-economic effects of Covid-19 on the active beneficiaries in the sample tourism area of Sarab Ravansar?
In terms of approach, the current research is a quantitative study based on the objective of applied type, and in terms of nature, it is a part of descriptive-analytical studies. In this research, a library method has been exerted in theoretical foundations, and a survey method to collect information related to the studied society. The statistical population of this research includes all households in Ravansar city that engage in service-economic activities in Sarab Ravansar. In this study, to obtain a suitable sample and fit the study's objectives, the available simple random sampling method was used to determine the number of samples of the Cochrane relationship.
The tool for collecting information in this research is a questionnaire that is taken from the studies of Rabiei and Tak Roostai (2020), Afzali and Zare Mehrjardi (2020), Askari Sawadjani et al. 2021, Pazukinejad et al. (2021) and in three parts, it includes questions about the personal and social characteristics of the respondents, including age, gender, education, occupation, etc. The second part includes items in the field of anxiety caused by Covid-19. The third part included items on economic effects, and the fourth part was also on the social effects of Covid-19 on tourism in the studied area. Related software such as SPSS and Smart PLS have been used in this study for data analysis.
Results and discussion
Based on the results of the t statistic related to the studied indicators, it was observed that the extracted t coefficient was positive and significant for the indicators of concern about financial issues (t = 5.83), concern about closure, or disruption of activity. related things (t = 5.35), stress caused by thinking about Covid-19 (t = 7.9) and fear of being infected with Covid-19 (t = 3.48). This situation shows that the average of the mentioned indicators among the studied people is greater than the theoretical average (3). Also, the positivity of the two upper and lower limits related to the total index indicates the significance of the difference between the mean of the variable in question and the theoretical mean. On the other hand, based on the obtained results, considering the index of concern about the transmission of the virus to others (t = -3.32), the t coefficient was negative and significant. Therefore, it can be said that the theoretical mean (3) of the mean This index has been larger. In other words, as it was said in the first part, the studied people were not worried about the transmission of the virus by themselves to others.
Based on the results obtained from the structural equation model, the variable of anxiety caused by Covid-19 has a significant effect on the variables in question, so that it has a significant effect on the economic (with an influence coefficient of 0.383) and social factors (with an influence coefficient of 0.509). have been. Also, the variable of economic factors affected by the Covid-19 has also had a significant effect on social factors with a coefficient of 0.137.
The social factors examined in this study include the three indicators of business, education and family domains. It showed that the initial results of the investigation of indicators related to social factors affected by Covid-19 were positive and significant, the t coefficient extracted for the indicators of the family domain (t = 4.96), the education domain (t = 3.06) and the business domain and work (t = 4.01). Based on this, it can be said that from the point of view of the studied people, Covid-19 had an effect on social indicators, and this was confirmed based on the structural model. So that the results of the model showed that the anxiety of Covid-19 (the effect of Covid-19) had a significant effect on social factors (with an influence coefficient of 0.509). Although the effect of Covid-19 on social spheres such as economic issues is not clear and direct, and even in some studies it is mentioned that these effects are not well known, but the effects of Covid-19, which include the implementation of quarantine, distancing social issues and even anxiety from Covid-19 have caused the closure or partial closure of many jobs and businesses in the studied area, which has affected family and educational relationships and even social interactions due to their jobs. The result obtained in the field of social effects caused by the Covid-19 pandemic is consistent with the results of Imani Jajermi's study (2019), Abbas et al. (2021), Suliko et al. (2021), Sah et al. (2020).