نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 گروه اموزشی جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشکده برنامه ریزی محیطی، دانشگاه تبریز
2 گروه آموزشی جغرافیای انسانی(جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی)، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران
3 هیأت علمی ، گروه آموزشی جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشکده برنامه ریزی و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Globalization is the dominant force that changes the economy and rural communities at the beginning of the 21st century. It has been a pervasive influence in changing the shape of rural areas, which simultaneously brings challenges and opportunities for rural development. Rural places have undergone different changes due to globalization in the last few decades. Concerning rural areas, as can be seen, these areas in the world are different and have their characteristics and structures. Therefore, the capacity of these regions to shape their future in the context of globalization will also be different. Villages as places on a local scale with their own identity, culture, way of living, and living spaces are becoming increasingly global. These villages worldwide are subject to severe changes and highly dependent on social and economic processes. In relation to this topic, today, globalization as a comprehensive phenomenon has many effects on the lifestyle of rural areas, which can be investigated, analyzed, and diagnosed from different aspects. But one of the most tangible aspects of the effects of globalization is the change in the lifestyle of the villagers in various economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects of the villages.
from the point of view of research classification based on the purpose, it is of applied type; because it seeks to apply theories, laws, principles, and techniques formulated in basic research to solve practical and real problems. Also, in terms of the possibility of controlling the variables, the research is quasi-experimental because, due to the post-event nature of the research, it is impossible to control the variables completely. The information collected in the research was based on two library and field methods. In the library method, a review of the research background and literature was considered, and in the field method, the questionnaire created by the researcher was considered. According to the variables of the research and also the method of analysis, the questionnaire was prepared in the form of open and closed questions and also included spectrums in the form of a Likert scale in the nominal and rank measurement scale and in some aspects, an interval, and was given to the participants. In connection with the information gathering tool (questionnaire), to ensure the similarity of the questions taken from previous research with the research variables and to reveal the face validity of these indicators and their similarity with the villages of the study area, academic experts in the field of rural planning were investigated. After receiving their opinions, the required parts of the questionnaire were revised, and a number of unimportant questions were removed. Cronbach's alpha test was used to check the research questionnaire data's reliability. Therefore, a sample of 30 questionnaires was first distributed to the target population, and according to Cronbach's alpha value, the final revision of the questionnaire was made and distributed to the relevant sample.
Results and discussion
Residents of rural areas feel significant changes in rural environments compared to the past, considering the dimensions of social lifestyle. In investigating these changes in the four dimensions of model-driven, language change, consumerism, and the sense of belonging to the village, and using the method of statistical tests, we try to investigate these changes. The selection of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests for analysis is different depending on the assumptions of each one. For this selection, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was exerted to check the normality of the data. Based on the standard coefficients, the relative importance of each of the independent variables in explaining and predicting the dependent variable has been revealed. According to the results, the components of model-driven, language change, consumerism, and sense of belonging play a prominent role in explaining and predicting lifestyle changes in the villages of the study area, respectively. In this, the model-driven variable is the most important because one change in this index's standard deviation causes the dependent variable's standard deviation (lifestyle) to change by 0.740. At the same time, a unit change in the standard deviation of other dimensions will result in changes of 0.737, 0.529, 0.450, 0.439, and 0.350, respectively, in the dependent variable dimensions.
Now, the future of rural spaces is facing more complex issues than before, one of which is the phenomenon of globalization and changes in cultural lifestyles in these areas. The phenomenon of globalization has put different changes in the cultural lifestyle of the residents in rural areas, and it has focused and examined the aspects of globalization in four dimensions, model-driven, language change, consumerism, and sense of belonging. These dimensions were the totality of the research, whose interpretation was considered in the cultural lifestyle change. The studied rural areas, like other areas, are often engaged in agricultural activities due to natural conditions. These activities are also seen in the residential context of rural areas, and most rural spaces are dedicated to these activities. According to the research findings, the studied rural areas feel great changes in the rural environment from different aspects compared to the past, which is significantly related to the effects of globalization. The research results indicate that the most changes and effects of globalization have been on model-driven components and the change of the local language and dialect of the residents in the studied rural areas. In the indicators of language change, as it is known, residents have less tendency to use local dialects due to globalization, and most of the residents use non-local expressions and terms in their dialect. In general, the research results show that the changes in the cultural lifestyle among rural areas are in the transition from tradition to modernity. Therefore, the research shows the attention and preservation of rural values along with the changes in cultural lifestyle in the studied rural areas.