عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Since any structure has a special function and each special function is rooted in a structure, target of this paper is describe and explain structure and function of participation management in Mashhad. Explain structure and function of participation management in Mashhad need describe structure and function of participation management in Mashhad. So, for explain structure and function participation management in Mashhad, we have to describe Characteristics of structure and function urban management in Mashhad. Some of Characteristics: numerousness of organizations, disharmony among organizations, ambiguity in tasks of organizations and etc.
Research methodology is descriptive-analytical method with structure- and function-oriented perspective. the first, this article describe structure and function of urban management Mashhad, then, made a causal relation between structure and function of urban management Mashhad. This is a method for Structural and functional explanation of urban participative management. Sampling method of this article is sampling method of Cochran. Two kinds of questionnaire were distributed among citizens (384) and urban experts (21).
Results and Discussion
Findings indicate that two halves of ''up to down'' (urban organizations) and ''down to up'' (city council and municipality) operate simultaneously and in parallel in structure of urban management of Mashhad (structural binary) such that the half ''up to down'' reveals an almost non-participative function and the half ''down to up'' a participative function( functional binary). Findings indicate that average index of participation is 2.4 which is a little less than the average in five-item Likert range (2.5). So, following structural binary, ''semi- participative function'' is one of characteristics of urban management in Mashhad.
Finally, ''semi- participative function'' that it is Consequent of functional binary, itself is Consequent of ''semi- participative structure''. ''Semi- participative structure'' (structural binary) is a reason for rise ''semi- participative function'. So we must research roots of “functional binary” in the” structural binary” To explain this binary, in half ''up to down'' (urban organizations) the main resource of effectiveness and accountable party are super-ordinate organizations. However, in half ''down to up'' (city council and municipality) the main resource of effectiveness and accountable party are citizens. Non passing of urban organizations programs from filter of city council as well as lack of integrated management is one of the most important challenges urban participative management faces with.