نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشیار علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Political partitioning of space is referred to science and art to organize country space. The most common kind of this process is country divisions. Decentralization, balanced political- economic development and balance distribution of sources and facilities are the main purposes for country division. Iran is one of countries with long time civilization during history. Also, Iran has many coasts and some of administrative divisions are related to coasts. Base of country divisional rule in Iran is returned to month of November, 1937-8. This rule was revised and approved in January, same year. In this rule, army-security factors were concerned, but lack of balance in political division in map of Iran divisions was outstanding in south coast. Some provinces such as Bushehr and Hurmozgan were formed as strip along Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in length of 707 and 900 km. Hurmozgan and Bushehr provinces are formed by military-security approach in south coast of Iran in time of geostrategic discussion. Present research study of country divisions system on regional development in south coast of Iran is based on enormous indicators of local development. They have planned for making suggestions and model of country division system in proportion to regional development.
Research approach is descriptive - analytical method, and information was gathered by library approach. Also, statistical methods are applied for analysis of information and data.
Results and Discussion
In this present research, dividing approach of these provinces was determined. Formation of Hurmozgan and Bushehr is based on military and security matters.
Iran is one of countries that are suffering from draught condition. The rate of annual rainfall in Iran is 250 mm, while this figure in worldwide is 750 mm during one year. Rate of annual rain in Iran is one third of the world rate. Important point is that most of water sources including rivers are originated from inside the country to neighbor countries. The rate of underground water is reducing during past decades. Thus, average values of country water during future years indicate drought in Iran.
Thus, one of liable region of the country for investigation and elimination of water sources crisis in Iran is border of Persian Gulf and Oman sea, where water refining instrument is used. Method for country division in Iran in southern coasts is not perfectly performed in relation to balanced distribution of water sources in political units and the potentials of water sources in this region. Also in geographical plan for Iran population, matter for lack of spatial balance of population in national land is obvious. In Iran territory, if we divide north to south by an imaginary line, we can see 27.34% of population living in east part and 72.65% living in western part. Also, 57.3% of Iranian population is dispersed in the country.
With investment, there is great potential in various regions to attract population. One of the approachs to develop investment in these regions is change in division system and balanced distribution of coastal spaces in political units. On the other hand, system of country in Iran in this region is related to natural sources such as oil, gas and ... in 3 provinces such as Khozestan, Bushehr, and Hurmozgan.
In the present research, with emphasis on the reasons and factors for dividing Hurmozgan and Bushehr provinces, it is clear that their constitution is related to military and security issues. According to the mentioned approaches in the fields of investment in south coasts by relying on lack and water source crisis, unsuitable distribution of population in National Territory, optimal exploitation from coastal region chances in various fields, it is essential that country division system of Iran can be changed and be adaptable with the factors for regional development and new divisional system in this region. Finally, in south coasts of Iran, adaptable with coastal region of Persian Gulf and Oman sea, seven provinces such as Sistan and Balochestan, Kerman, Hurmozgan, Fars, Bushehr, Kohgieluyeh and Boyerahmad and Khuzestan had the role for exploiting coastal regions and investment. They make new opportunities for development of coastal regions in relation to method and pattern of organizing political land spaces.