تحلیل آسیب‌پذیری بافت‌های قدیمی شهر کاشان در برابر زلزله

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ‏ارشد برنامه‏ ریزی شهری، مؤسسة آموزش عالی خاوران، مشهد، ایران

3 کارشناس ‏ارشد برنامه‏ ریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

4 کارشناس ‏ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ‏ریزی شهری، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تحلیل میزان و چگونگی آسیب‏پذیری بافت‏های قدیم شهری به برنامه‏ریزان و مدیران شهری در تصمیم‏گیری‏های مناسب و انتخاب راه‏حل‏های کنترل و مقابله با مخاطرات احتمالی کمک مؤثری می‏کند. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی آسیب‏پذیری بافت قدیم شهر کاشان در برابر زلزله و چگونگی توزیع شاخص‏های آن است. شاخص‏های به‏کارگرفته‏شده در تحلیل مشتمل است بر: مساحت ‏‏‏قطعات زمین؛ نوع کاربری زمین؛ عرض معابر؛ نوع مصالح؛ تعداد طبقات؛ قدمت ابنیه؛ کیفیت ابنیه؛ دسترسی به فضای باز؛ فاصله از گسل؛ و مدیریت بحران. ماهیت پژوهش کاربردی و روش آن اکتشافی- تحلیلی است. جمع‏آوری داده‏ها و اطلاعات در مرحلة اول به‏صورت اسنادی و بررسی متون مختلف است و از روش میدانی به‏ویژه مشاهده بهره گرفته شده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از مدل Fuzzy AHP، سیستم اطلاعات مکانی، و نرم‏افزار Expert choice استفاده شده است. یافته‏‏های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که از لحاظ آسیب‏پذیری 11درصد مساحت بافت شهر در طیف خیلی کم، 7درصد در طیف کم، 15درصد در طیف متوسط، 22درصد در طیف بالا، و 45درصد در طیف خیلی بالا قرار دارد. تمرکز فضایی آسیب‏پذیری در بخش مرکزی بافت قدیم به‏سبب مصالح کم‏دوام، کیفیت نامطلوب ساخت، و قدمت زیاد ابنیه است. کمترین آسیب‏پذیری مربوط به جدارة اصلی بافت به‏‏ویژه در بخش جنوب شرقی است. درمجموع، می‏توان نتیجه گرفت در بُعد ارتقای کیفیت به‏کارگیری اصل خطرپذیری مدیریت بحران و در بُعد قدمت توسعة اقدامات بازآفرینی در ابعاد زیستی‏– کالبدی،ساخت اجتماعی بارویکرد ترکیبی، و مدیریت بحران می‏توان باعث کاهش آسیب‏پذیری بافت‏های قدیمی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Vulnerability of Urban Decayed Textures of Kashan City against Earthquake

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Shamai 1
  • Atefeh Daneshvar Khorram 2
  • Ahmad Ravanbakhsh 3
  • Majid Afsar 4
1 Associate professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A of Urban Planning, Khavaran Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
3 M.A of Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University Yasuj , Yasuj, Iran.
4 M.A of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction

Due to the increasing occurrence of natural disasters in recent years around the world, especially earthquakes, and consequently the increase in losses and damages caused by earthquake in human societies, especially cities, the reduction of vulnerability against these events have particular importance. The old urban textures in developing countries, for various reasons, are at more risk of earthquake. Therefore, the understanding of earthquake crisis management principles in urban areas may be a first step in the crisis management and one of the most basic guidelines for the implementation of earthquake crisis management. Due to having numerous faults, seismicity background, and lots of old textures, Kashan is at relative risk of moderate seismicity. This necessitates taking measures in earthquake disaster management in Kashan.


Methodology

This was a descriptive - analytic study in terms of methodology. Given the nature of data, this was a non-experimental research. In the first step, the data were collected studying the library various texts and documents texts on earthquake and its damage in urban areas, particularly old textures. In the next step, the data were collected by field study and using local information and statistics and information of consulting engineers and related organizations. Finally, the data were transformed to maps. In the analysis, first all the data and values of parameters were extracted. Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert choice, the relevant indices were weighted. Using GIS software, the zoning map of district vulnerability was provided with FUZZY logic. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were provided with respect to all discussed information.


Results and Discussion

The indicators such as the type of material, age of buildings, floors of the building, access to roads, and etc. are important in assessing the vulnerability of cities to earthquake. The synthesis using GIS and multi-criteria assessment AHP methods had an effective role in vulnerability assessment. Also, it made possible the comparing of various indicators and final vulnerability with regard to different indices. The techniques used in this study can be generalized to other cities in Iran. After reviewing the different perspectives and approaches in the field of crisis management and cities earthquake vulnerability, the systematic approach was selected as the theoretical framework of research. This approach is actually originating from crisis management perspective. According to the study purpose which is reduction of vulnerability and earthquake damages, the risk reduction which is mainly related to pre-crisis was selected as policy of this study. According to studies which were conducted on desired area, it was concluded that Mohtasham, Kashan district, with its numerous fault, was among Iran’s high-risk areas.
The binary comparison of indicators suggested that given its importance against earthquake, the building materials had the highest score. The experience of recent earthquakes has shown that the type of building materials used to construct is one of the important factors affecting vulnerability caused by the earthquake. In total, nine indices were used to assess vulnerability. The level of damage to buildings in this urban district was divided into five groups including very low, low, medium, high, and complete vulnerable zones.


Conclusion

The results showed that 10% of area had very low vulnerability, 19% had low vulnerability, 15% had medium vulnerability, 47% had high vulnerability, and 9 percent had very high vulnerability. The spatial distribution of vulnerability in area was associated with lack of using resistant materials, poor quality, and old buildings. The lowest vulnerability was in major part of texture, especially in the southeastern part of area. The crisis management includes 8 principles. Finally, the results showed that the use of crisis management principles, access to open space, and the use of forward-looking crisis management principles may greatly reduce vulnerability against earthquake risk in Mohtasham area.
Results and Discussion

The indicators such as the type of material, age of buildings, floors of the building, access to roads, and etc. are important in assessing the vulnerability of cities to earthquake. The synthesis using GIS and multi-criteria assessment AHP methods had an effective role in vulnerability assessment. Also, it made possible the comparing of various indicators and final vulnerability with regard to different indices. The techniques used in this study can be generalized to other cities in Iran. After reviewing the different perspectives and approaches in the field of crisis management and cities earthquake vulnerability, the systematic approach was selected as the theoretical framework of research. This approach is actually originating from crisis management perspective. According to the study purpose which is reduction of vulnerability and earthquake damages, the risk reduction which is mainly related to pre-crisis was selected as policy of this study. According to studies which were conducted on desired area, it was concluded that Mohtasham, Kashan district, with its numerous fault, was among Iran’s high-risk areas.
The binary comparison of indicators suggested that given its importance against earthquake, the building materials had the highest score. The experience of recent earthquakes has shown that the type of building materials used to construct is one of the important factors affecting vulnerability caused by the earthquake. In total, nine indices were used to assess vulnerability. The level of damage to buildings in this urban district was divided into five groups including very low, low, medium, high, and complete vulnerable zones.


Conclusion

The results showed that 10% of area had very low vulnerability, 19% had low vulnerability, 15% had medium vulnerability, 47% had high vulnerability, and 9 percent had very high vulnerability. The spatial distribution of vulnerability in area was associated with lack of using resistant materials, poor quality, and old buildings. The lowest vulnerability was in major part of texture, especially in the southeastern part of area. The crisis management includes 8 principles. Finally, the results showed that the use of crisis management principles, access to open space, and the use of forward-looking crisis management principles may greatly reduce vulnerability against earthquake risk in Mohtasham area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seismic vulnerability
  • urban textures decayed
  • Crisis Management
  • Kashan
  • AHP- Fuzzy
  1. احمدیان، آراسب (1380). بررسی تطبیقی مدیریت بحران و پیش‏بینی زمین‏لرزه، پژوهش‏نامة زلزله‏شناسیومهندسی زلزله، ۴(۱).
  2. تتوی، احمد و قزوینی، آصف‏خان (۱۳۸۲). تاریخ الفی (دورة هشت‏جلدی)، تهران: شرکت انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
  3. پورمحمدی، محمدرضا و مصیب‏زاده، علی (1387). آسیب‏پذیری شهرهای ایران در برابر زلزله و نقش مشارکت محله‏ای در امدادرسانی آن‏ها، فصل‏نامة جغرافیا و توسعه، 6(۱۲): ۱۱۷-144.
  4. حاتمی نژاد، حسین، پوراحمد،احمد، زیاری، کرامت الله، بهبودی مقدم، حسین(۱۳۹۸).پیچیدگی و پویش فضایی بخش مرکزی شهرها، مشهد: انتشارات پاپلی،کتاب امید، چاپ اول.
  5. شماعی، علی، پوراحمد، احمد(1392). بهسازی و نوسازی شهری از دیدگاه جغرافیا، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، چاپ پنجم.
  6. عزیزی، محمدمهدی و اکبری، رضا (1387). ملاحظات شهرسازی در سنجش آسیب‏پذیری شهرها از زلزله (مطالعة موردی: منطقة فرحزاد تهران)، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، 34(۱۰): ۲۵-36.
  7. مهندسین مشاور باغ اندیشه (1389). طرح بافت قدیمی کاشان، سازمان مسکن و شهرسازی استان اصفهان.
  8. علیجانی، بهلول (1393). مبانی فلسفی مخاطرات محیطی، فصل‏نامة تحلیل فضایی مخاطرات محیطی، ۱(۱).
  9. محمودی، سیدمحمد (1382). نقش سیستم‏های اطلاعاتی و مدیریت بحران، فرهنگ مدیریت، ۱(۴).
  10. مقیمی، ابراهیم (1393). دانش مخاطرات برای زندگی با کیفیت بهتر و محیط پایدارتر، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
11. Ahmadian, Arasb (2001). A Comparative Study of Crisis Management and Earthquake Forecasting, Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 4 (1).

12. Tatoi, Ahmad and Qazvini, Asif Khan (2003). Tarikh al-Fi (eight volumes), Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company.

13. Hataminejad, Hossein, Poorahmad, Ahmad, Ziari, Keramatollah, Behboodi Moghadam, Hossein (2009). Spatial complexity and scanning of the central part of cities, Mashhad: Papoli Publications, Omid Book, first edition.

14. Shamaei, Ali, Pourahmad, Ahmad (2013). Urban Rehabilitation and Renovation from a Geographic Perspective, Tehran: Tehran University Press, Fifth Edition.

15. Mahmoudi, Seyed Mohammad (2003). The role of information systems and crisis management, management culture, 1 (4).

16. Moghimi, Ibrahim (2014). Knowledge of risks for living with better quality and more sustainable environment, Tehran: University of Tehran Press.

17. Alijani, Behlool (2014). Philosophical Foundations of Environmental Hazards, Quarterly Journal of Spatial Analysis of Environmental Hazards, 1 (1).

18. Azizi, M.M. and Akbari, R. (2008). Urban Planning Issues in Earthquake Vulnerability, Fine Arts Journal, 34(10): 25-36 (In Persian).

19. Boughton, G. (1998). The community: central to emergency risk management, AustralianJournal ofEmergency Management, 13(2): 6-11.

20. Consulting Engineers of Garden Andisheh (2010). Kashan's worn texture plan, Housing and Urban Development Organization of Isfahan Province. (In Persian).

21. ClarkD, W. (2001), Domestic Violence Screening Police and Procedures in Indian Health Services Facilities.Journal of Amrican Board Family Practice.١٤(٤). pp:٢٥-٢٨.

22. Cutter, S. (1996). Vulnerability to Environmental Hazard, Progress in Human Geography, 19(4): 529-539.

23. Cutter, S.L.; Barnes, L.; Berry, M.; Burton, C.; Evans, E.; Tate, E. and Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters, Global Environmental Change, 18(4): 598-606.

24. Cutter, S.L.; Boruff, B.J. and Shirley, W.L. (2003). Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards, Social Science Quarterly, 82(2): 242-260.

25. Cutter, S.L.; Mitchell, J.T. and Scott, M.S. (2000). Revealing the Vulnerability of People and Places: A Case Study of Georgetown County, South Carolina, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(4).

26. Ford, J. (2002). Vulnerability: Concepts and issues; A literature Review of the Concept of Vulnerability, its Definition and Application in Studies Dealing With Human- Environment Interactions, University of Guelph.

27. Ghafory, A. (1999). Rescue operation and Reconstruction in Iran, Disaster Prevention and Management Journal, 8(1): 1-16.

28. Gibson, G. (1997). An introduction to seismology, Information Management & Computer Security Journal, 4(3): 20-25.

29. Hewitt, K. and Burton, I. (1971). The hazardousness of place: a regional ecology of damaging events, University of Toronto Press, Research Publication.

30. Lantada, N.; Pujades, L. and Barbat, A. (2008). Vulnerability index and capacity spectrum based methods for urban seismic risk evaluation, A comparison, Natural Hazards, 4(51): 409-501.

31. Lavell, A. (2003). An approach to concept and definition in Risk Management terminology and practice, Final report, prepared under contract to ERD-UNDP, Geneva.

32. Little, M.; Paul, K.; Jorderns, C.F. and Sayers, E.J. (2002). Vulnerability in the Narrative of Patients and Their Cares: Studies of Colorectal Cancer, Health, 4(4): 425-510.

33. Martinelli A. and Cifai, G. (2008). Building Vulnerability Assessment and Damage Scenarios in Celano (Italy), Using a Quick Survey Data-Based Methodology,Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 28: 875-889.

34. McEntire, D.A. (2004). Development, disasters and vulnerability: A discussion of divergent theories and the need for their integration, Disaster Prevention and Management, 13(3).

35. Moe, T. and Pathranakul, L. (2006). An integrated approach to natural disaster management: Public project management and its critical success factors, Disaster Prevention and Management Journal, 3: 396-413.

36. Pelling, M.; Maskrey, A.; Ruiz, P.; Hall, P. and Peduzzi, P. (2004). Reducing Disaster Risk, a Challenge for Development, UNDP.

37. Poormohamadei, M. and Mosayebzadeh, A. (2008). The Vulnerability of Iranian Cities against Earthquake and the Role of Neighbourhood Participation in Providing Assistance for Them, Geography and Development Iranian Journal, 6(12): 117-144. (In Persian)

38. Rashed, T. and Weeksm, J. (2003). Assessing vulnerability to earthquake hazards through spatial multicriteria analysis of urban areas, International Journal of Geographical Information Journal, 17(6): 547-576.

39. Stonich, S. (2000). The human dimensions of climate change: The political ecology of vulnerability, Department of Anthropology Environmental Studies Program, Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Marine Science University of California.

40. Trondheim, R. (2002). Reducing Disaster Vulnerability through LocalKnowledge andCapacity: The Case of Earthquake prone Rural Communities in India and Nepal, Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Architecture and Fine Art Department of Town and Regional Planning.

41. Van Westen, C. (2006). Geoinformation Science Earth Observation for municipal risk management. The ALARM project, International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, ITC, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Ensched.

42. Weichsel Gartner, J. (2002). Disaster mitigation: the concept of vulnerability revisited, Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 10(2): 85-95.

43. Wisner, B. (2005). Tracking Vulnerability: History, Use, Potential and Limitations of a Concept, Invited Keynote Address, SIDA & Stockholm University, Research Conference, January 12-14.

44. Yamin, F.; Rahman, A. and Huq, S. (2005). Vulnerability, Adaptation and Climate Disasters: A Conceptual overview, IDS Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 36(4): 1-14.