عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The structure of a city as a spatial form is the result of the interaction between environmental, economic, social and political processes. Within the context of urban political economy, each country creates a special urban constructions to rebuild the dominant economic system. According to the Growth Coalition theory, the base of the coalition for the growth of local power elements in cities is mainly based on land factors. In this context, active actors in the land market and urban property become key actors in urban development and production of rented space. This paper, based on theoretical literature on urban land rent, and relying on real data, while introducing rent-seeking mechanisms in urban residential land supply process, studies the production of urban space derived from it. Then, the urbanization of rent process with emphasis on redistributional rent-seeking as the main attribute of the economic system of rentier in Iran and its impact on the structure of Zanjan city is explained. In cities of Iran, rent-seeking from urban land, happens in the available spaces with a great deal of different rent, or creating new spaces contrary to urban development standards with the aim of achieving absolute rents in cities The second, according to Lefebvre's readings, is the production of space or spatial expansion. "The first is the so-called" space constraint. In the cities of Iran, the rent-seeking mainly due to the production of new space, in comparison with the space constraints, plays a major role in the urbanization and construction of cities. In this regard, one of the fields of space production, urbanization of rent and rent-seeking in the cities of Iran is inefficient allocation The scarcity of land in the form of undeveloped land in the form of ineffective implementation of land development policy as one of the most important and prevalent urban land policies since the 1980s and introducing it into the residential land speculation system. Land speculation is exchange of space as a commodity, with the mediator of money as a pure redistributional rent-seeking. This economic action is one of the characteristics of the urbanization of Iran, which is directly related to the economic structure of the country, called the Rentier system. The residential land supplied in this way, with varying degrees of underdevelopment level and more than the use and actual demand of the city, creates the ground for the high exchange value. So that for a long period of time, without complete development of residential land, it provides the space for redistributional rent-seeking resulting from the absolute exchange value created on the land.
Methodology: This paper, using descriptive-analytical method, the role of the factors affecting the production of rented space in Zanjan city within a rentier economic system is examined by residential land development plans. Data collection have conducted with library and field studies. For analysis of data, the path analysis, Multidimensional decision-making model, toward multi-criteria decision-making model, Delphi analysis method with fuzzy weighting were used in DPSIR model. At first, the research data were ranked by Delphi process and fuzzy weighting. Then, the data were weighted and ranked using a multi-criteria decision making model. In the next step, using the path analysis method, the effect of each of the components on the production of rented space analyzed. Path analysis method is a kind of regression analysis that is used to understand the causality and display the causal relationship patterns among a set of related variables using multivariate linear regression test. Also, Excel software and SPSS software have used for research needs.
Results and discussion: Regarding to the influence of different forces on shaping the urban rented space, field surveys also showed that the urban growth boundary control indicators with direct effect of 0.527 have the most relationship with city construction based on urban land rent. In other words, the statistical community, in explaining the relationships between independent and dependent components, believes that what can control urban construction resulting from rented space production, are components based on controlling the city's boundaries. So that, It can be more effective in optimal organizing urban space. In contrast, macroeconomic indicators that are influenced by the performance of the rentier government, with direct effect of 0.359, have less effective compared with the other components.
These components undermine the structure of urban management. With the weakening of urban management and the lack of control of the macroeconomic processes that create the rents, the local government and non-government actors involved in land and housing can’t control the flow of land and urban housing, so that the production of rented space in the city through rent-seeking behavior of the economic-social elite is intensifying.
In this regard, statistical findings indicate that the share of land prices at the cost of housing with a coefficient of 0.794; the share of oil added value in GDP with a coefficient of 0.792; the ratio of liquidity in GDP with a coefficient of 0.774; the duration of the permits The construction for more than 80% of residential lands in land development plans with a coefficient of 0.749 has the most impact on the production of rented space according to the Todim Model.
Conclusion: The results of the research showed that the economic structure of the country has a significant role in producing rented space and urban management and urban residential land supply policies in cities, including Zanjan city. Considering the findings of the research on the impact of different economic, social and managerial forces on the production of rented space in Zanjan city, in order to improve the status quo and move towards the production of urban space in order to suitable response to the real and use needs of housing, it is necessary to consider the following.
- Managing oil revenues, liquidity and government assistance to create productive urban economy.
- Prevent buying and selling or speculation land plots Through proper implementation of residential land development policies based on real and use needs of land.
- Attention to urban regeneration policies
- Facilitate the issuance of building permits for vacant land.