عنوان مقاله [English]
The present research aims to explain how and why the application of the genealogy approach has been developed to analyze the evolution of the role of cities over time. Various approaches have been suggested by economic and urban geographic theorists to analyze the "the role of city" developments. From Foucault's genealogy perspective, city and its role are influenced by the power and power relations in space and the space is created by the interaction of knowledge and power. Genealogy of the role of city aims to answer the following questions: what are the current dominant roles of city, regardless of the initial formation of city and its geographical and political background? How did these roles develop over time and what discourses have been made of? And finally, what is the power and capacity of city to diversify the new roles? The dominant role of city has developed in various historical time periods, and in the middle of historical discontinuities, as a result of spatial links between micro and macro components of power and knowledge in urban space. The interconnected network of knowledge-power in city, influenced by the political philosophies governing the historical periods, creates different discourse zones over time that have different social and physical effects on urban space, and affects the process of urban development, physical changes, human and environmental resources.
Cities have unique cultural and architectural features, quality, comprehensive social and power resources, as well as many opportunities for economic development. They are the centers of knowledge and the resources of growth and innovation. However, they also host a population that suffers from problems and inequalities and social deprivation (a particular social group), high housing prices and environmental problems .The urban space is a social outcome, the result of an historical process, an unequal accumulation of time. The space is also a presupposition and a milieu of social production. From this perspective urban spatiality – cities – represent the crystallization of earlier patterns and also the possibilities towards future events that were brought up previously. The spatial configuration and the territory, are the key to read the past, learn the present and to envisage the future. The interest of geographers in relations between knowledge, power, and space has a long tradition but it was reinvigorated by critical engagements with Foucault and Gramsci
Centers can function as truth spots, and sites of knowledge generation, information control, and power execution. where there is no evidence, field techniques such as interviews and historical memory of individuals are also used. Methods of data analysis in this type of research are;
• Historical analysis: the study of the history of the development of discourses about the role of city, the historical discontinuities in the formulation of macro and micro discourses formed in discourse zones
• Genealogical analysis: the past and present roles of the city, through the study of discourse zones, historical discontinuities, and the analysis of the effects of the dominant discourses on urban space and power-knowledge relations forming the role of city are analyzed
• Content analysis: the analysis of national, regional and local (city) development documents as well as related scientific research.
The genealogy of cities and their role and function is a very good way to explore the spatial reflection of social relations and discover their historical (time) roots. It has higher ability to search, discover, and describe considering the conditions and in comparison with other methodologies such as hermeneutics and relativism. Since historical descent analysis of city and its role requires contemplation and selection of an approach that can identify the historical descent shaping the role of city and its evolution over time by avoiding mere historicism and taking into account all the factors creating the complex spatial relations based on power and knowledge, it can be selected as a turning point of the research on the recognition of past, present and future role and function of cities.
The genealogy of the role of city attempts to understand and analyze the power relations and forms of knowledge in the city, in order to understand how the city and its role has been shaped throughout the history. The genealogy of the role of city seeks to identify the historical descent of the subject which is itself the cornerstone of the birth of modern human being that has converted human into subject and object at the junction of power and knowledge
The description and analysis of how the current dominant roles of city have been developed can be conducted by the use of power -dependent tools and products of knowledge. The study of macro-evidence of development at national, regional and local levels, historical documents, scientific research projects, plans, policies, and development strategies of geographic areas (city) provide an opportunity for identifying power / knowledge discourses in city. Then, the genealogist can suggest supplementary roles for city by identifying infrastructural potentials and characteristics of city (natural, cultural, physical, political, etc.) with the aim of improving the quality of life for the residential and mobile population (tourists), and economic, social and cultural dynamism and diversification of urban functions, in line with city sustainability. The diversification of the role of city aims at enhancing the cultural and economic status of city at the national, regional and international levels and to promote the urban quality of life. The problem many cities currently face is that they are becoming immersed in the structures of power based on particular ideologies, leading ultimately to the complexity of the defined social and political space, and the single product economy, which gradually and definitely creates unsustainable and uncertain economic conditions for the cities; this uncertainty has a significant impact on the strategic responses of the elements of power (the owners of financial and economic resources) and, consequently, the social space of the cities will be affected.