گونه ‏شناسی و بررسی ساختارهای مدیریت زائرسراهای ارزان‏ قیمت در شهر مشهد، با نگاهی بر تئوری نوآوری مخرب

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکدة گردشگری جهاد دانشگاهی

چکیده

تأمین اقامتگاه، بر اساس توان اقتصادی و سطح اجتماعی گردشگران، یکی از مهمترین موضوعات مدیریت مقاصد گردشگری است که در ایران از وظایف و اختیارات قانونی وزارت میراث فرهنگی، گردشگری، و صنایع دستی است. مسئلة اساسی پژوهش حاضر بررسی و گونه‏شناسی اقامتگاه‏های ارزان‏قیمت در شهر مشهد، فرایندهای عملیاتی و اجرایی احداث، و ارائة راهکارهای مدیریت چالش‏های ناشی از احداث آن‏ها، بهعنوان یک نوآوری مخرب در محیط بازار رسمی اقامت گردشگران، با رویکردی انتقادی و با نگاهی بر تئوری‏های علمی مرتبط است. نوآوری مخرب بازار و شبکة ارزش جدیدی ایجاد می‏کند و موجب بر‏هم‏خوردن موازنة شرکت‏ها در بازار میشود. این پژوهش از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی- تحلیلی است و پژوهشی کاربردی در حوزة مطالعات گردشگری بهشمار می‏آید. اطلاعات از دو طریق اسنادی و میدانی گردآوری شد و در تحلیل اطلاعات از نرمافزار GIS استفاده شد. مسائل ناشی از توسعة لجام‏گسیختة زائرسراها در چهار زمینة مدیریتی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی، و محیطی- کالبدی بررسی شد و راهکارهای برونرفت از آن پیشنهاد شد. از دیدگاه انتقادی، آنچه موجب تغییر و نوسان ناگهانی بازار اقامت در مشهد شده عمدتاً ناشی از تفاوت وزن تأثیرگذاری عناصر قدرت بر سیاستگذاری‏های حوزة اسکان است و راهکار نهایی برون‏رفت از این مسئله مشارکت کلیة ذی‏نفعان در برنامة مدیریت یکپارچة اقامت زائران و گردشگران در شهر مشهد است. نتیجة اجرای این راهکار ایجاد فضای سالم رقابتی و کنترل و مدیریت خسارت‏های اقتصادی ناشی از یک فعالیت جدید بر بازار سنتی و رسمی اقامت و اسکان گردشگران در شهر مشهد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology and study of cheap pilgrims' houses management structures in Mashhad, Based on destructive innovation theory

نویسنده [English]

  • Masoomeh Tavangar
Acecr
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Providing accommodation based on the economic capacity and social level of tourists is one of the most important issues in tourism management. In Iran, the duties of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts. The main topic of research is the study and typology of cheap accommodation in Mashhad, operational and executive processes of construction and presentation of management strategies for the challenges arising from their construction, as a destructive innovation in the official market environment of tourist accommodation, it is related to a critical approach and a look at scientific theories. This innovation has created a new market and network value and is upsetting the balance of companies in the market. In expressing the necessity and importance of the subject of this research, Evidence shows that the construction of pilgrimage sites in the city of Mashhad, without considering the rules of urban development plans, in areas with urban residential use and without considering the characteristics of the population entering these areas, disregarding urban and citizenship laws and rights. , Has caused dissatisfaction of many citizens of Mashhad. The main objectives of the research are:
 investigating the types of cheap accommodation in Mashhad as a new element in Mashhad accommodation services
 Investigating the current situation and operational and executive processes of construction of new pilgrimages in Mashhad
 Provide management strategies for the challenges caused by the construction of new low-cost pilgrimages and control of this innovation, in the business environment of Mashhad's official residence area




Methodology
The present study is a descriptive-analytical research and is an applied research in the field of tourism studies. The information was collected through both documentary and field methods. The database of pilgrims 'houses in Mashhad was formed in GIS software environment and the distribution map of pilgrims' houses in Mashhad metropolis was drawn. According to the critical approach of this article to the situation of management and planning of cheap pilgrims' houses in Mashhad, the analysis and explanation of the issue was done with a look at the theory of destructive innovation and urban critical theory.
Results and discussion
The subject of this research deals with the policy-making and implementation processes of building cheap pilgrims' houses, the entry of religious institutions, economic organizations of public nature (such as Astan Quds Razavi and Mashhad Municipality) and government organizations in the field of investment and management of tourist accommodation. The research findings show that these institutions have entered the field of tourism management and investment in a very wide and sudden way, outside the legal and regulatory scope of tourism management, and regardless of the official sector, disrupt the long-term strategic and economic plans of the tourism industry in Mashhad. In the city of Mashhad, there are enough places and various facilities to meet the accommodation needs of travelers, and the private sector provides services to travelers much cheaper, better and more specialized in the field of accommodation. If the support provided for the construction of low-cost pilgrims' houses, such as the transfer of land and the issuance of free construction permits, were provided to the private sector, more desirable units with a more satisfactory level of living and much lower costs would be built. Therefore, the rapid development of pilgrims' houses can be explained in terms of the principles of destructive innovation theory. Because on the one hand, while generating income for a part of the population living in the destination, it is also known as a new and attractive phenomenon for tourists, and on the other hand, it has detrimental effects on the official sector of accommodation services in the tourism sector. Also, due to their activities outside the long-term plans of the tourism management structure in the public sector, they have many effects and consequences on tourist destinations.

Conclusion
Therefore, managers and officials of tourist destinations, in the face of the activity of emerging tourist accommodation, face a paradoxical phenomenon that has both positive and negative effects; it is so important for some residents in terms of job creation and income generation, and it is also a good option for many tourists to stay. However, their activity is not officially and completely controlled. In a situation where the traditional market is involved in the previously defined templates and standards, and in terms of marketing technology, it lags behind innovative innovators, or the target audience is able to pay the huge costs of standard and quality accommodation due to low income. It does not create a new market and provides the services needed by these contacts. In order to improve the current situation, the business environment of the residence in Mashhad is recommended:
1. In order to optimally manage and legally supervise this project, pilgrimages should be included in the regulatory circle of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism and provide services to tourists in accordance with international and national standards so as not to monitor the tourism market in Mashhad. Furthermore, it does not inflict economic or social damage on the industry.
2. In order to create a healthy competitive business environment among all activists in the field of residence, the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism should follow up and provide the fields of financing and economic investment in a fair manner for all applicants.
3. Integrated management of residential centers in Mashhad, under the supervision of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism.
4. Participate in the efforts of public, private and public institutions in national, regional and local policy and planning, with the aim of maintaining and balancing the economic interests of all stakeholders in the market of Mashhad. This issue should be grounded and managed by the institutions in charge of tourism management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cheap accommodation
  • pilgrims' houses
  • Typology
  • destructive innovation
  • Mashhad
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